Kent Defences => Armament & Emplacements => Topic started by: Paul on June 05, 2008, 22:13:22

Title: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Paul on June 05, 2008, 22:13:22
Has anyone got any recent pics of the torpedo rails at Garrison Point?
This is the only one i have.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 06, 2008, 09:29:13
I have this pic but it's not too close and the tide is up

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Maidstone Trooper on June 06, 2008, 09:45:44
Missed that when i was there, it was something i wanted to see too.  I assume this is very near GP FORT, and therefore not accessible publicly.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 06, 2008, 09:48:27
Trooper my pic was from the top of the fort, it is right beside it so unless you can get official access to the docks it will be ver hard to get any pictures of it!
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Maidstone Trooper on June 06, 2008, 09:58:07
I assumed as much form your pics.  When the tide is out does it leave it completely exposed??
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Paul on June 06, 2008, 10:17:31
Yes most of it.
I think a lot was destroyed when they built the dock.
There's another one at Cliffe Fort though i dont know what condition its in.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: merc on June 06, 2008, 12:35:01
Here's the one at Cliffe Fort.



Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Maidstone Trooper on June 06, 2008, 12:39:45
.... and here is some wikki.... (
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Trev on June 06, 2008, 16:09:42
This is really interesting, I knew nothing of the existance of the Brennan Torpedo.
Can I add some pics to my dockyard picture section? Credit would be given.  :)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: david on June 15, 2008, 11:26:54
Brennan launch rail supports, taken at Garrison point Fort in 1993.
I have posted some pictures here: (
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on November 11, 2008, 18:06:57
Couple of pics of one of the Brennan Torpedo Observation Posts


In this one you can see the remians of a shelf inside on the left hand side.

And this is a turntable used for the torpedos at the workshop area
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: david on December 07, 2008, 11:01:43
Sorry it took me while to get round to uploading this.
This diagram came from the PRO plans for Alec Beanse's book on The Brennan Torpedo
(edited to change from Imagevenue to Photobucket)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Riding With The Angels on December 07, 2008, 20:14:45
There is one preserved in the Royal Engineers Museum at Brompton.

Although the below link states it is at Chatham Dockyard - has it moved?
l= (
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: david on December 08, 2008, 17:50:53
Its still in the Royal Engineers' Museum at Gillingham not far from the Dockyard.
Here it is:
 ( (
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: david on April 11, 2009, 18:41:04
I was beginning to think they were positioned outside on the rails and then the wires attached

I drew the launch sequence for Alec Beanse's book on the Brennan Torpedo. Its on my website here: (
The wires were attached before the torpedo started its journey down the launch rail. An ingenious but complicated launch procedure.
I have not seen the plan that you posted John. Very interesting. The guide for the travelling pulley is labelled, as is the winch.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: david on April 12, 2009, 12:14:25
Having read this thread, Alec Beanse has just posted the following drawing to me. It shows the connection between the launch rail and the casemate with the winding engine - No.14 upper tier.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Paul on April 12, 2009, 16:31:24
Done a bit of an overlay ???


Hope your mate dont mind David o:)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Davids Mate on April 14, 2009, 16:12:35
Done a bit of an overlay ???

Hope your mate dont mind David o:)

No, not at all - a good idea infact.

What I did notice is that the 'bay' that contained the slipway supports appears to have been shut off from the river by pileing and possibly infilled to some extent. Could mean the piles are now buried.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Davids Mate on April 14, 2009, 16:24:02
It seems like it might have had three sets of rails, Like Kyn suggested in the past. ???
Two visable guiding stations,The other further round near the searchlight posts,and another by the "i" near the bottom of the Fort ???

Blimey! I hope you dont teach English o:)

Two slipways, the original and one off at fourty degrees or so seaward to the original. If you look at the Garrison Point thread, on page 2 last post, kyn posted a complete set of plans. If you look at the ground floor plan it clearly shows the two slipways with the tramway feeding them from the torpedo store. No other slips are visible. What is not certain is if two engines were ever installed. Garrison Point never got the normal service gear and used the trials engine to drive a modified form of it. There was a proposal, in 1903, to fit service gear and move the old engine back to it's original location. Never been able to establish if this was done or not.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Davids Mate on April 15, 2009, 11:12:17
Not sure about attaching images but if you look at:

There is a copy of an old photo of GP which is WWII or later showing the slipway piles. The second row beside them may be wooden piles of the original slip and the next photo shows what is probably one that had survived. The third shows the two surviving supports of the second, angled slipway.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Paul on April 15, 2009, 12:23:07
I think those Rails are under the carpark ???

Just had another look on GE and they are the surviving rails :)
It looks like the Brennan OP has been removed on a recent pic ???
Exactly how many Brennan OPs are there ???
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on April 15, 2009, 12:47:25
Three OP's, all still remaing although the bottom of one has been removed for the twin 6pdr emplacement.

Davids Mate, i have posted the plans as big as i can on here i think but i will double check.  I may able to email them to you in a larger size if not.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Paul on April 15, 2009, 12:53:30
In your pic it shows a gap ???
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on April 15, 2009, 13:01:57
Point taken  :D

I thought you meant totally removed and location unknown  o:)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Davids Mate on April 15, 2009, 16:32:53
Three OP's, all still remaing although the bottom of one has been removed for the twin 6pdr emplacement.

Davids Mate, i have posted the plans as big as i can on here i think but i will double check.  I may able to email them to you in a larger size if not.

There were actually four, if you count the original open position on the roof. It can be seen on the two roof plans in the Garrision Point thread. There are plans of the two directing stations in WO78/4430 indicating they were added in 1901/02 and the third,which may have been a lookout rather than a directing station, in 1905.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Davids Mate on May 20, 2009, 18:38:28
The one in the museum is the only remaining one of its type!

There are a couple of Chinese copies here:
Title: Re: Garrison Point Fort
Post by: kyn on June 10, 2009, 16:54:41
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 15, 2009, 12:26:24
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Paul on June 15, 2009, 12:42:26
Nice plans :)

Do any of these rooms still exist ???
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 15, 2009, 13:13:07
They do, they are the casemates of the fort.  Unfortunately the casemates are all locked so i have been unable to see if anything remains inside, although it is unlikely as the torpedoes were launched from outside of the fort.  These plans are just previous proposals.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 15, 2009, 16:31:19
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: david on June 16, 2009, 09:02:04
The casemates were full of old chains and bits of junk when I visited in 1993. Very little in the way of fittings remained. The upper floor casemates had the passenger tunnel running through them, which prevented any access to the walls of the caseemates. There was nothing to suggest that any Brennan installation equipment was ever there.







(spelling mistakes corrected!)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 16, 2009, 12:09:14
The engine room was installed for the torpedos and i think it is still remaining.

I don't really understand where these plans are or what they show  ??? :-[

This last one is obviously a cross section of the fort itself
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 18, 2009, 19:11:13
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 19, 2009, 19:15:08
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on August 02, 2009, 20:45:42
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on September 25, 2013, 14:44:04

1881 – 1887.

War Office March 1887.


This invention was first brought to the notice of the War Department by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley (of Victoria, Australia), in May 1881.  They had been for some time in communication with the Admiralty with regard to it, but had been informed that that department was not prepared to incur the expense of trials.  Messrs. Brennan and Temperley then submitted it for adoption by the War Department.

The circular for inventors was sent to them 9th May 1881, and the Admiralty were requested to furnish copies of reports made by naval authorities in Victoria and at home, on the torpedo in question.

The Admiralty in reply, 24th May 1881, sent certain reports, and notified that they had agreed to a proposal of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, that the torpedo should be inspected confidentially by Officers nominated by their Lordships.

Lieut.-Colonal Lyon, R.A., Superintendent Royal Laboratory, was associated with the Officers named by the admiralty, and they inspected the torpedo on 23rd June 1881.

The admiralty forwarded, 26th July 1881, the official report of the Officers above referred to, and stated that their Lordships did not think that the torpedo would be found suitable for use on board Her Majesty’s ships, but that further trial of it might possibly be desirable for use from forts.

By the Secretary of sTate’s direction, the matter was referred to Inspector-General of Fortifications, 3rd August 1881.

Meantime, however, the Royal engineer Committee had drawn Inspector-General of Fortification’s attention to the invention; and on the 8th August 1881 they were instructed by Inspector-General of Fortifications to communicate with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, and report what experiments they recommended.

The Committee reported 24th August 1881, and in accordance with their recommendations arrangements were made with the Admiralty for assistance being afforded in carrying out preliminary experiments, which were ordered to be proceeded with 9th September 1881.

The royal Engineer Committee reported fully on experiments which they had carried out 30th May 1882.

They recognised the great merit of the invention, and strongly recommended that an improved pattern of the torpedo should be made at the expense of the Government, and that a series of further trials should be instituted.

A discussion then ensued as to the exact steps to be taken, in the course of which the Inspector-General of Fortifications (Sir Andrew Clarke), in a minute dated 30th June 1882, observed as follows:-

No formal or indeed, as far as I know, informal agreements have been entered into or even discussed as to remuneration or reward to be given to the inventor should be principle of his invention be adopted.  I have, however, ascertained that if this weapon fulfils, when perfected, all that is author contemplates, and that if it becomes the exclusive property of the English government, he expects to receive something not far short of 100,000l.  I have also, ut informally, ascertained from him, that, pending this final adoption, he would be glad to have an advance made to him of 5,000l.

This, however, will have to be made the subject of formal agreements under satisfactory guarantees provided by the inventor.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on September 26, 2013, 16:25:47
In my report, as President of the Royal Engineer Committee, I advised that the new torpedo should be made by Mr. Brennan and not in the Arsenals, but Mr. Brennan hesitates about putting himself and his invention in the hands of a private firm, and in this, I think, he is wise.  He would therefore prefer, if he can get the torpedo shell itself fashioned at the Arsenal, he preparing the drawings and moulds, working out the details and erecting the new weapon in the workshop attached to the School in Chatham, and working with detailed royal Engineer artificers.  He paying them, as well as for the materials and use of plants, &c., which he could well do with the funds advanced on account, but not for the steam power used subsequently to drive the torpedo.  This we may again get form the Admiralty.

On 12th July 1882, Messrs. Brennan and Temperley wrote the two following letters to the Inspector-General of fortifications:-

“We have the honour to draw your attention to the attached article which appears in this morning’s issue of the standard.  We have not the slightest knowledge as to how the information was obtained, but the article itself contains indubitable internal evidence that the information has been supplied by some one having access to the papers connected with our business, and now in the possession of the War Office.

We attach no importance to the description contained in the article, because it is merely an outline of the principle necessarily disclosed in our patent, whilst the successful application of the principle to torpedoes depends upon devices which we have kept secret, and which are the result of years of practical experiment.  Nevertheless the fact of general attention having been directed to the existence of the weapon, has forced upon our consideration the necessity of urging the Government to an immediate decision as to what steps they intend to take with reference to its adoption.”

“Since naming to you informally the price we are prepared to accept from the British Government for this invention, it has occurred to us to place the matter before you in the three following alternative forms:-

1.   As originally verbally stated to you, we are prepared to sell the invention to the British Government, to undertake to use every endeavour and take every precaution to secure to the British Government solely and exclusively all the advantages arising from its possession, and to give them the sole and exclusive advantage of Mr. Brennan’s great knowledge and experience of the weapon for 100,000l.

2.   We are prepared to sell the invention to the British Government on the above conditions for 25,000l., and a royalty on the manufacture of the torpedoes covering the remaining 75,000l. with interest.

3.   We are prepared to sell to the British Government the right to make and use the torpedoes in Great Britain and her dependencies along for 30,000l., reserving to ourselves the right to manufacture for other countries.

Without wishing to unduly urge the Government to a decision, we are very anxious that out business should receive immediate attention, and we hope that we may soon be informed what steps the Government are prepared to take in the matter, as time is of the most vital consequence to use, and we are not in a position to remain inactive for any lengthened period.”

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Signals99 on September 27, 2013, 00:16:01
Hi all, as mentioned previously on the forum I worked as a junior store house assistant at RNAD Lodge Hill. One of my last jobs prior to closure and my being transferred to the yard, was assisting a clerical officer in documenting the exhibits in Upnor Castle museum.
Among those was a Whithead torpedo, also a Brennan Torpedo, a very different shape and size to the then current Mk eight torpedo. I can't recall a lot about it, only that it had a small 'mast' or rod  sticking out of it on top and some wires at the prop end. I think both of them were taken of charge and sold as scrap.
All the weapons, cutlasses, pistols etc. went to the Tower armouries, powder kegs and shot went to RNAD Pridys Hard.
 It was a very long time ago and memories dim with age. I have tried to give just the salient facts, don't think I've let my imagination run riot, but if anything is subsequently found to be wrong, sorry.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on September 27, 2013, 12:54:46
The following minute was submitted to the Surveyor-General by Inspector-General of Fortifications, 17th July 1882.

Herewith are two letters referring to the Brennan torpedo, and which should be read together: one submitting alternative proposals of terms for the use of this engine of warfare, the other drawing attention to an article in the Standard news-paper of July 12th.

In this article, the leading features of the torpedo are described with more or less of accuracy, details which have not hitherto been disclosed to the public, and which could only have transpired through the agency of the owner, or by (to use the mildest language) a very grave indiscretion on the part of some public servant, who may have taken part in the trials or had access to the papers.  This must be made the subject of a searching enquiry, so little need be said in reference to it here, other than to observe that this premature disclosure rather forces an early and final decision on the merits of the invention itself; and, anticipating its adoption as a national weapon of defence, the terms of reward or remuneration of the inventor or patent holders must be considered.

Messrs. Brennan and Tempreley have made three proposals in their letter of 12th instant herewith.  Of these three, I must advise a favourable consideration of No.1.  The second proposition is indefinite, and would be certain to give rise eventually to complications and disputes, the third inadmissible.

If it is determined to permit the use of this invention to other countries, the simplest plan will be to contract – as for the use of other articles – with the inventors or manufacturers, for the supply from time to time of the quantities we may require, free from any permanent engagement or undertaking on either side.

I am strongly of opinion that the adoption of the first proposal, or some modification of it, would be on the whole the wisest policy.  No doubt the sum demanded seems large, but of this I am certain that if it were decided that this country would not endeavour to secure for itself (a far as possible) the exclusive use of the invention, and the inventor asked to be furnished with the results of his experiments conducted in the presence of our Officers, - and I do not know on what grounds the request could be refused, - if he were to take these results into the market, he would have no difficulty in selling his invention for at least double the amount now asked.

It may be urged that the very fact of having to go to Parliament, to sanction so large a reward, would (if nothing else did) at once direct attention to the nature of the invention, with the result that it would be immediately reproduced elsewhere: possible so, but though the principle of the invention has been for some time in reality public property, it has taken the inventor many years of study and practice to bring it to its present condition of practical applicability.  And, though other nations may eventually learn to make it, the price asked is not more than the advantage of the start may be worth to us.

As an engine of ocean warfare I will not say much, but I have every confidence that in this respect it will have great success; it can be launched and directed with unerring certainty from a ship when under weigh, travelling at high speed, and has a range far in excess of any other known weapon of the kind.

For the defence of tidal waters, or even open roadsteads, it must be a most effective agent.

The machine is less costly than other known locomotive torpedo.  On shipboard it needs no special power provided, for giving it motion; the application of the ordinary steam power of the ship will suffice.  On shore also, when not needed for the torpedo, the power can be applied to other uses.

The inventor, Mr. Brennan, is a trained and accomplished mechanical engineer, of very exceptional talent and constructive power.  He combines with this, great modesty, and, I feel assured, high sense of duty and personal honour, lading me to believe that it would be, on all grounds, most desirable to secure him permanently for the service of the Queen.  Whether this may be done by engaging him in a civil capacity, or, as he is still very young, by giving him a commission in the Army (Royal Engineers) – a course I do not hesitate to advise – where we are pressed to obtain Officers with mechanical experience, may remain a matter for further consideration.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on October 01, 2013, 09:43:15
A Committee, consisting of Lord Morley, Under Secretary of State; Sir J. Adye, Surveyor-General of the Ordnance; Sir F. A. Campbell, Director of Artillery and Stores; Sir Andrew Clarke, Inspector-General of Fortifications, assembled at the War Office, 1st August 1882, to consider the general subject.

The following memorandum, prepared in Director of Artillery’s Department, was submitted to them:-

1.   The inventors, from Australia, have been for some time in England and in communication with this department, and as a certain amount of encouragement has been given to them, and experimental trials made at Chatham, there can be no doubt that they have incurred considerable expense.

2.   The invention is patented in this country, but it is stated in their letter of 12th July 1882, and the statement is apparently confirmed by the Inspector-General of Fortifications, that “the successful application of the principle to torpedoes depends upon devices which we have kept secret, and which are the results of years of practical experiment.”

3.   They complain of the publication in the press of certain details which impel them to ask for an immediate decision as to the intentions of Her Majesty’s Government.

4.   Their proposals are as follows:-

(a.)   To sell the invention to the British Government; to undertake to use every precaution to secure to them solely and exclusively all the advantages arising from its possession, and to give them the sole and exclusive advantage of Mr. Brennan’s great knowledge of the weapon for 100,000l.
(b.)   Or, to sell the invention to the British Government for 25,000l. and a royalty on the manufacture of the torpedoes covering the remaining 75,000l.
(c.)   Or, to sell to the British Government the right to make and use the torpedo in Great Britain and her dependencies along, for 30,000l., reserving the right to manufacture for other countries.

5.   Inspector-General of Fortifications advises (a), and says (b) is indefinite, and (c) inadmissible.

He says that the results obtained at Chatham would enable the inventors to obtain elsewhere, at least , double the amount now asked.

Further, that not only for land but also for sea service, the invention would be most valuable.

Also, that Mr. Brennan being a trained and accomplished engineer, it would be desirable to secure his services.

If the British Government intend to take up the invention, an advance of 5,000l. on account is desired and recommended.

In reference to the foregoing I would submit as follows:-

(1.)   If Messrs. Brennan and Temperley have furnished secret information not derivable from their published specification, which can be used and applied, they ought to be remunerated, and 5,000l. would not appear to be an extravagant sum, on the understanding that we shall be at liberty to use and apply our knowledge.

NOTE. – 15,000l. was paid to Mr. Whitehead for a full communication of his secret, and he was left free to make his torpedoes for other Powers.

(2.)   If the invention is so important and so secret as to warrant special terms with the inventors; and if, moreover, it is possible to preserve secrecy notwithstanding manufacture in Royal Laboratory, the patent might by assigned to the Government, and the services of the patentees, or patentee, secured by a payment down of, say 20,000l., and a salary, say for three or five years certain, as in the case of Major Moncrieff who received a salary of 1,000l. per annum.

(3.)   The Secretary of State has observed that the question involved is “very serious,” alluding, I imagine, to the expense, and I would respectfully observe that we must satisfy the Treasury of the advantages to be gained to induce them to agree to such large payments even as those already mentioned.

(4.)   The payment of such a sum as 100,000l. would assuredly involve a special vote of Parliament.

(5.)   The crucial question seems to be, is there a really valuable secret?  If we buy it, can we keep it secret; can we ensure its being known only to ourselves and the inventor; and, finally, supposing other questions to be answered affirmatively, what is the secret worth?

Lewis W. Engelbach.

27th July 1882.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on October 02, 2013, 13:01:10
The Committee reported as follows, 1st September 1882:-

The foregoing memorandum clearly states the circumstances of this case.

We have no doubt of the value of this torpedo invention.  We are less confident that the secret on which its efficient working depends can be kept from foreign Governments for any length of time.  If we bought the monopoly we should, probably, only retain it for a few years at the most.

Under these circumstances, the terms demanded by the inventor appear to us, considering that there is much yet to be done to perfect the invention in its practical application, in excess of what should not in reason be entertained.

We think, however, that the invention is sufficiently valuable to justify us in recommending that an arrangement should be proposed to him on the basis of the terms granted to Major Moncrieff.

Mr. Brennan having been invited by the Government to come to this country from Australia, has been since working out his invention in the Government workshops for more than a year, and has imparted valuable information to the Inspector-General of Fortifications and the Royal Engineer Committee.  He is not possessed of funds to enable him to pursue his experiments, and has already expended a considerable sum in carrying them on.

We suggest, therefore, that 5,000l. be granted to him for services already rendered, and that he should be taken into the Government service for three years certain, at a salary of 1,000l. a-year, on the condition that we are at liberty to use and apply this information, and that he will, as long as he is so employed, keep the secret from other governments.

When the torpedo has been perfected and subjected to more full trials, the matter should be again considered, with a view of determining whether we should purchase its exclusive use, or should allow it to go into the open market.

The Secretary of State (Mr. Childers) approved for recommendation to the Treasury, 3rd August 1882, and a letter was written accordingly, 8th August 1882.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on October 27, 2013, 22:27:56
The Treasury replied 9th August 1882, as follows:-

Treasury to War Office.

In reply to Sir Arthur Hayter’s letter of the 8th instant, I am directed by my Lords to inform you that they approve of the terms on which the Secretary of State proposes to secure the use of the Brennan and Temperley torpedo – namely, the immediate payment of 5,000l., and the employment of Mr. Brennan for three years certain, at the rate of 1,000l. per annum, in order to secure the development of the invention; the question of the purchase being left for further consideration.

2.   My Lords give their approval, subject to the following observations:-

3.   The interest of Mr. Brennan and his partner in the ultimate sale of his invention to the Government, is not identical with that of the Government in Mr. Brennan’s employment during the three years.  It is his interest, so long as the sale is uncertain, not to afford all the information he may be acquiring.  My Lords do not understand whether he is to be employed in the Royal Laboratory and subject to official inspection.

4.   Supposing that there is no ultimate purchase of the invention by the Government, there should be the most express renunciation on the part of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley of a lllegal rights of patentees against the Government, either under the existing law or any change of it.

5.   Considering the importance of the engagement, my Lords are of opinion that the terms of it should be expressed in the memorandum of agreement prepared in communication with the Solicitor of the Treasury, and settled by the Law Officers.

6.   My Lords notice the statement as to a further proposal for meeting the expense.

Negotiations ensued, and a draft agreement was prepared of the provisions of which the following is a brief summary:-

The Secretary of state to pay to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley the sum of 5,000l. as compensation for expenses in coming to England, &c., and up to date; such payment to be paid on the date of execution of agreement.

1.   Mr. Brennan thereupon to be employed by War Department for three years in improving and perfecting invention. &c.

2.   Should Mr. Brennan give notice during the above period that the improved torpedo is complete, and fit for trial; then his employment to cease at the expiration of two calendar months, if that be within the three years.

3.   Mr. Brennan to receive, while employed, 1,000l. per annum.

4.   Full means and facilities to be afforded to Mr. Brennan, and expenses of construction and trial to be borne by War Department.

5.   Mr. Brennan to reside in London, but to travel as directed, and observe other directions as to his employment.

6.   Mr. Brennan’s whole time to be devoted to War Department.

7.   No secret information relating to the torpedo to be at any time divulged by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, or any representative or agent, without Secretary of State’s sanction.

8.   No patent relating to the torpedo to be taken out anywhere during Mr. Brennan’s employment, nor any license of assignment to be made to any person other than the Secretary of State.

9.   If, during the three years, Mr. Brennan shall give notice that the torpedo is complete and fir for trial, then, within two months after such notice, or, if the three years, the Secretary of State shall have the option of purchasing the invention and exclusive use of the torpedo, with all improvements and information, on terms to be then agreed upon; if such purchase be made, the improved torpedo and all its appurtenances to be the property of the Secretary of State.

10.   If such purchase be not carried out, the improved torpedo and its appurtenances, or such parts thereof as they may desire, to be the property of the Torpedo Company, on payment of cost of the construction thereof; but the sum of 5,000l. referred to above, and any sums paid to Mr. Brennan as salary, not to be included in cost.

11.   Until such purchase shall have been made, Messrs. Brennan and Temperley not to be required to divulge any secret connected with the torpedo, except on strict confidence to not more than three persons named by the Secretary of state, for the purpose of estimating the value of the invention.  Such information not to be used in anyway, save as hereinafter mentioned, unless the invention is purchased.

12.   If before the expiration of the three years, or earlier determination of Mr. Brennan’s employment, he shall neglect, or refuse, or cease to serve the War Department, except on account of temporary illness; or of there should be any breach of the agreement on the part of the Torpedo Company, or of Messrs. Brennan, Temperley, or Calvert, then any information such as mentioned in Article 11 shall become the property of the Secretary of State, and may be made use of by him.

13.   Nothing in the Agreement to affect the right of the Crown of its Officers to use patents without payment or compensation.

(The Agreement in full is appended to this paper.  Appendix 1., page 30.)

The Draft Agreement was submitted to the Treasury by their Solicitor, and, on 25th January 1883, they addressed the following letter to this department:-
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on October 31, 2013, 13:39:40
Treasury to War Office

The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury have received from their Solicitor a draft of the proposed agreement between the Secretary of State of War and the Brennan Torpedo Company, Limited, and others, correcting up to (at least) the 16th instant, and (as they understand) in the form last approached on behalf of the Secretary of State; and with reference to your letter of the 13th ultimo*, I am to request you to lay before the Marquis of Hartington the following remarks upon the draft in that shape:-

1.   The consideration to be given for the payment of 5,000l. is in part prospective – viz., the execution of certain agreements.  There is, moreover, the possibility of Brennan’s veraciously striking work after the money has been paid.  Both these points tell against the immediate and unconditional payment of the sum in question; and my Lords would have thought that at least the payment of 1,000l. out of this total might be deferred until the agreements were completed.
The opinion which the Secretary of State may entertain of Brennan’s desire to fulfil his engagements is the most important factor in deciding this point.

2.   My Lords would have thought it desirable to provide more clearly a mode of purchase in the case of the Secretary of State ultimately deciding to buy.  Article 9 of the Draft Agreement gives him a right of pre-emption, upon terms to be settled at the time, but such a provision would be of little value in the case of an excessive price being demanded.

3.   In spite of the opinion expressed in your letter under reply, my Lords still think that it might be well that an agreement of such importance and difficulty should be settled by the Law Officers of the Crown, especially as the whole subject would doubtless have to be referred to them in the event of any legal questions arising on the Agreement.

My Lords have thus expressed the difficulties they feel with regard to this matter in its financial aspect.  But should the Secretary of State consider that he has other reasons sufficient to outweigh these objections, my Lords are content that their views should remain on record, for such reference hereafter as circumstances may suggest, without further insisting upon them as the present time.

*   The letter of 13th December 1882 submitted Draft Agreement as it stood at that date, for Treasury’s concurrence.

Minutes as under were recorded on this paper:-

Lord Morley to Secretary of State, 29th January 1883.

The Treasury letter practically assents to the proposed arrangement, but throws the responsibility on you.  It is now for your decision.  The facts of the case are given in the enclosed memorandum.

The Treasury call attention to three points:-

1.   I do not think that there is any reason to fear that Mr. Brennan will strike – and if he does, and the suggestion of the Treasury were adopted, we should only save 1,000l.  Mr Brennan informs me that, if required, he would deposit half the amount which he is to receive as a security against his striking.

2.   Mr. Brennan desired to fix the terms for ultimate purchase; we declined to do so, as we had not sufficient information to enable us to estimate the value of the invention.

3.   It is for you to decide whether the agreement should be referred to the Law Officers.  Such a reference would involve delay, and Mr. Brennan is – not without reason – losing patience; he has been kept waiting for a definite answer to his proposals for more than eight months.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on October 31, 2013, 21:15:42
Minute by Secretary of State (Lord Hartington), 30th January 1883.

Considering all the circumstances of the case and the delay which has already occurred, I think it is unnecessary to refer the Draft agreement for the opinion of the Law Officers.

As to (1) and (2), I agree with Lord Morley that Mr. Brennan has sufficient interest in bringing the work to a successful conclusion, and it appears to have been decided on sufficient grounds that it is better not at present to attempt to fix the terms for ultimate purchase.

The following letter was addressed to the Treasury, 1st February 1883:-

War Office to Treasury.

I am directed by the Marquis of Hartington to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 25th ultimo, No. 1458, relative to the proposed Agreement between this department and the Brennan Torpedo Company and others, and giving expression to the difficulty felt by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury in regard to this matter.

In reply I am to acquaint you, for the information of their Lordships, that the subject has received the most careful consideration in this department, from every point of view, and the Marquis of Hartington is not only prepared to take the responsibility of completing the Agreement as now arranged and settled in communication with Treasury Solicitor; but looking to the length of time that has elapsed since the negociations commenced, and to the interest which Mr. Brennan will himself have in bringing the work he is engaged upon to a successful issue, he is prepared to recommend that the proposed reference to the Law Officers of the Crown should be dispensed with.

Under all circumstances, therefore, Lord Hartington would be glad to receive the assent of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury to the Agreement being completed and carried out forthwith.

The payment of 5,000l. will be a charge upon Vote 15 (Sub-head c), and the excess, if any, upon that Vote will be met by a saving on Vote 12.

The salary, which will take effect from the date upon which the Agreement is signed, will also be charged to Vote 15, and be provided in due course in the Estimates for next year.

The Treasury, on 2nd February 1883, notified their sanction to the completion of the Agreement as proposed, and the matter was duly proceeded with.

On 14th December 1885, the Inspector-General of Fortifications minuted to Director of Artillery as follows:-

The Royal Engineer Committee, 27th April 1885, report that the torpedo is at present a formidable weapon, and have reported, 9th October 1885, that they consider that they are already in possession of sufficient information as to the value of the torpedo when running on the surface.

Mr. Brennan is at present endeavouring to perfect the depth mechanism of his torpedo.

A further report of the progress made is directed to be furnished on the 1st January 1886.

I would propose that a Committee, composed as follows:-

Surveyor-General of Ordnance,
Director of artillery,
Inspector-General of Fortifications,
Director of Naval Ordnance,
Chemist to the War department,
Mr. Engelbach, C.B., Secretary,

be appointed about the beginning of February 1886, to assess the value of the torpedo in the state of efficiency it shall have arrived at by that time.

The Committee could be assisted in their judgement by –

(a.)   Witnessing actual trials of the torpedo.
(b.)   Reports of the Royal Engineer Committee of the trials which have taken place in the presence of some of their members, and also by their recommendation or otherwise.
(c.)   Improvements suggested by Mr. Brennan and explanation of the methods in which he thinks the torpedo could be applied.
(d.)   Remarks by Inspector-General of Fortifications on the Royal Engineer Committee reports when received, and upon the positions when the torpedo could with advantage be employed, and also upon the designs for the improvement and use of the torpedo suggested by Mr. Brennan.
(e.)   Agreement made by the British Government with Mr. Whitehead in 1868, for the purchase of right to manufacture Whitehead torpedoes.
(f.)   Original proposals made by Mr. Brennan for the purchase of his torpedo and any subsequent ones he may have to make.
(g.)   The following memorandum detailing the principles in which it is desirable to conduct the purchase of the torpedo.


The trials of this torpedo, which have already been carried out, show that it possesses in some important points considerable advantages over any form yet brought forward.  Its exact value can only be estimated when the trials are concluded, but in any case it appears very evident that its maximum capabilities are yet far from being attained, and that it will require much study and a long period before the result is arrived at, as in the case of the Whitehead torpedo, to which continual improvements are being made, although it has been an efficient weapon ever since it was first purchased.

In order that the development should be proceeded with as quickly as possible, it is thought that it will be necessary for the inventor to conduct the manufacture, and therefore that one of the terms of the Agreement should be the retention of Mr. Brennan’s services as superintendent of the manufacture of all these torpedoes.

I also think that inducements should be offered him to perfect the manufacture of the torpedo.  This could be done in one way by giving him a royalty on every torpedo manufactured, as the number to a large extent would depend upon the efficiency of the weapon.

An agreement of the nature described would ensure the Government getting good value for the money spent, as the expenditure would be proportioned to the numbers of the torpedoes actually constructed for use, and this form of payment would constitute part of the purchase money.

The terms I would therefore suggest for consideration would be as follows –

1.   The payment of a certain sum in cash if the torpedo be adopted into the Service.
2.   The appointment for a certain period of Mr. Brennan as superintendent of the manufacture of torpedoes at a certain salary.
3.   The payment of a royalty in each torpedo manufactured for a certain number of years.

The above conditions are on the assumption that it would be desirable to purchase the exclusive right to the torpedo, but if the Committee hold the opposite view, it would, I think, be most desirable that an agreement be made by which Mr. Brennan assents to establish his manufactory in England.

If you concur generally, will you pass with your observations for the final orders of the Surveyor-General.

Director of Artillery concurred generally, but considered the time an inconvenient one for assembling the proposed Committee, and suggested that it should be deferred for a short period, and that meantime an arrangement should be made for continuing Mr. Brennan’s employment for six months or a year.

Inspector-General of Fortifications preferred a year for the period of extension, and after reference to the Solicitor, the following letter was addressed to the Treasury, 13th January 1886:-
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on November 08, 2013, 11:21:36

Referring to the correspondence which passed between this department and the Treasury, and particularly to your letters of the 25th January 1883, No. 1458, and 2nd February 1883, No. 2340, respecting the Agreement with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley for the working out of the Brennan torpedo.

I am now directed by Mr. Secretary Smith to acquaint you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, that satisfactory progress has been made in the development of this invention, but that it is quite impossible to come to a final conclusion as to its adoption or otherwise into the public service by the 13th proximo. On which date the Agreement of 1883 will terminate.

It is proposed very shortly to appoint a Special Committee to consider all the circumstances, and the result would in due course be communicated for their Lordships’ consideration.

In the meantime, there seem no alternative but to continue the Agreement for another year, which involves the payment of another year’s salary (1,000l.) to Mr. Brennan for his further services, which are indispensable.

The Solicitor has been consulted, and a Draft Agreement prepared for extending the existing one to 13th February 1887.

I am, therefore, to request the favour of an early notification of their Lordships’ concurrence, so that the extension proposed, to which Mr. Brennan is willing to agree, may be settled forthwith, and the necessary provision of 1,000l. included, as before, in the Army Estimates, 1886-87, Vote 15 (Sub-head c).
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on November 10, 2013, 15:08:44
The Treasury replied, 20th January 1886, as follows:-

Treasury to War Office

The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury have had before them your letter of the 13th instant, proposing a prolongation of the agreement between the War Department and the Brennan Torpedo Company and Mr. Louis Brennan, dated 13th February 1883, which will expire on the 13th proximo, ad I am to state, for the information of Mr. Secretary Smith, that in deference to his recommendation, my Lords consent to the prolongation of this agreement for a period not exceeding one year, and to the consequent continuance of an equal period of Mr. Louis Brennan’s salary of 1,000l. per annum from Army Votes.

My Lords much regret, however, that this prolongation should be necessary; and they think it would be only equitable, in event of the ultimate purchase of the invention and exclusive use of the Brennan Fish Torpedo by the War department, that the salary of Mr. Brennan should be abated from the price.

A Supplementary Agreement was accordingly executed 18th March 1886.  By this it was provided that the Agreement of 13th February 1883 should be extended so as to comprise the term of four years from the letter date.

(The Agreement in full is appended to this paper.  Appendix II., page 34.)

In June 1886, steps were taken towards assembling the Committee, the Admiralty having, on 22nd June 1886, stated they had no objection to the Director of Naval Ordnance serving on it, observing, however, that it had not been considered that this weapon was of value for Naval purposes in connection with the fleet.

The Committee held meetings on 16th July and 16th October, on which latter date they considered a minute of the Inspector-General of Fortifications with reports of Sub-Committee on the results of trials of the Brennan torpedo.*

The Committee also considered the question as to the terms on which the torpedo could be purchased, supposing its adoption into the Service was decided upon, and it being further resolved to secure, as far as possible, exclusive rights to the British Government.

They resolved that the question of maintaining secrecy, supposing the invention is purchased, being of crucial importance, it should be thoroughly investigated, and they decided upon authorizing Major Sale, R.E., to confer with Mr. Brennan on this point.

They decided also that Major Sale should invite Mr Brennan to state his own views as to what reward or remuneration would be adequate, in the event of adoption by the British Government for its own exclusive use.  Major Sale to take for his guide in making his enquiries the questions that were summarized for the Committee of 1882 (see page 5), viz. :-

1.   Is there really a valuable secret?
2.   If purchased for the exclusive use of the British Government, can the secret be fairly maintained?
3.   Can the Government ensure its being known only to themselves and the inventor?
4.   And, supposing these questions to be answered affirmatively, what is the secret worth; in other words, what terms would Mr. Brennan be disposed to ask?

It was decided to send a minute to the Inspector-General of Fortifications, requesting him to instruct Major Sale as above.

*This was printed as a separate document, “Print No. 2, secret.”
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on November 12, 2013, 10:00:29
In the meantime, under date of 18th October, the following notice was received from Mr. Brennan through Mr. Malleson:-

Mr. Brennan to Secretary of State.

I have the honour to give notice, in accordance with the provisions of the agreement made the 13th day of February 1883, between myself and John Ridley Temperley of the first part, myself on my own behalf of the second part, William Calvert of the third part, and Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the War Department of the fourth part, and an extension thereof made the 18th day of March 1886 between the same parties, that the Improved Brennan Fish Torpedo is complete and fit for trial.

On 26th October, at their third meeting, the Committee witnessed a trial at Sheerness, all members being present, including Captain Fisher, R.N., who was about to succeed Admiral Hopkins as Director of Naval Ordnance.

On the 27th, letter was written to the Admiralty as follows:-

War Office to admiralty.

Referring to previous correspondence that has passed between the admiralty and this department in regard to the Brennan torpedo, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Smith to acquaint you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the admiralty, that the time has arrived for deciding whether this weapon, which is now reported as efficient, is to be adopted for use in Her Majesty’s Service.

Their Lordships are aware that a Committee is sitting for the purpose of assessing the value of this torpedo, and the inclosed confidential print will place them in possession of the recent results attained and the latest proposals submitted by the Inspector-General of Fortifications in regard to the application of the invention, supposing the terms of purchase to be satisfactorily arranged.

Mr. Smith feels it to be a matter of urgent importance that he should know whether the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty are prepared to join with him in proposing terms to the Treasury for the exclusive use of the Brennan torpedo for the Service of this country, or whether their Lordships still remain of the opinion that it is not likely to be required for naval use.

Their Lordships are aware that the trial which took place yesterday at Sheerness was attended by the present and future Director of Naval Ordnance, and it is really a most important consideration in determining the purchase or otherwise of Mr. Brennan’s invention, to known whether, in the event of their Lordships still adhering in a general sense to the views already expressed, they would further consider that the possession of this weapon by foreign countries would or would not be a matter of sufficiently serious concern for Her Majesty’s Navy as to render if desirable to make such pecuniary sacrifice as may be necessary in order to retain the weapon in the exclusive possession of this country.

The next meeting of the Committee will be held at this office on Tuesday next, 2nd November, at noon, and I am to express Mr. Smith’s hope that the naval representatives will be in a position at that meeting to give expression to their Lordships’ views on this very important question which presses for early solution.

The Committee held their fourth meeting on 2nd November.  All members present, with the Secretary, Lieut.-Colonel Armstrong and Major Sale also attended.  Captain Fisher, the new Director f Naval Ordnance, was unable to attend, by Rear-Admiral Hopkins was present as before.  They considered a report by Major Sale dated 25th October 1886, with accompanying memoranda (see page 14), submitted in pursuance of the reference to him decided upon at the third meeting.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on November 28, 2013, 15:42:00
The Committee also discussed a memorandum which had been prepared by the Secretary, and the resolved as follows:-

1.   That the Committee are unanimously of opinion that the value and Importance of this invention is such as to warrant them in recommending its purchase for the exclusive use of the British Government.

2.   That a Sub-Committee should be appointed to endeavour to come to terms with Mr. Brennan and Mr. Temperley on a basis not to exceed the following, viz.:-

40,000l. down.
20,000l. royalty in five years.
20,000l. after five years, in four annual instalments.

With the grant of commissions in the Royal Engineers as Supernumerary Captains and advancement in due course of Regulation.

Treasury Solicitor to be communicated with, who should draw up necessary conditions, including pledges to secrecy, services to develope, non-divulgence, &c.

3.   That the Committee should submit provisional scheme of adoption as drawn up by the Inspector-General of Fortifications, observing that the amount to be taken next year will depend on consideration with the estimates.

4.   That in the event of the Secretary of State giving his approval to negations as proposed, the Sub-Committee should consist of the Surveyor-General (the Chairman), with the assistance of Colonel Armstrong, a Treasury Legal Officer, and the Secretary.

Report by Major Sale, R.E., with accompanying memoranda, considered by Committee, 2nd November 1886.

Inspector-General of Fortifications,

In compliance with your instructions I have conferred with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley and attach three memoranda, of which:-

The first marked A, sets forth precisely, on information furnished by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, the degree to which the internal mechanism of the torpedo is known to various persons.

The second, marked B, refers to the mechanical arrangements proposed for keeping secret certain essential parts – viz., the steering and depth mechanism.

The third, marked C, sets forth the terms now put forward by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley for the purchase of their invention.

In connection with these memoranda, I venture to make the following remarks:-

As regards the value of the secret.  This lies not only in the steering and depth mechanism, but also in the numerous clever devices which have been invented to meet the many difficulties which arose when working out the details.

Whatever the value of the secret may have been in 1881 that value has been very greatly increased by the improvements added since that date.

Steering arrangements could, no doubt, be devised by any clever mechanist acquainted with the torpedo in principle, but would be most difficult, if not impossible, to meet the many small practical difficulties which are met with in working out this principle, without prolonged trial and experiment.
The value of the depth mechanisms, in my opinion, very great, it is a wholly novel and strikingly ingenious apparatus for meeting conditions far more complex than are met by the corresponding apparatus in the Whitehead torpedo.

I do not think that this mechanism, or anything equal to it in efficiency, is likely to be hit upon (except after prolonged study) by any person, however able a mechanist he be.  Moreover, its action is so very peculiar that it would require a prolonged inspection, whilst at work, by a skilful mechanical engineer to comprehend its action, and would be quite beyond the comprehension of a working artisan.

Upon the whole, it appears to me that the purchase of the invention would secure a start of four of five years over any other country in the use of this class of weapon.

As regards to Mr. Brennan’s financial position:- in the course of his early efforts to bring out his invention he had to raise the money by parting with a very considerable proportion of any purchase money to be received.  He is pledged to a small company, or syndicate, in Australia, and has also to provide for the share of Messrs. Temperley and Calvert, so that the sum asked from Government though large, will not in reality furnish any very great amount to the inventor.

M.T. Sale, Major, R.E.

25th October 1886.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on December 04, 2013, 19:00:29

Memorandum showing the degree in which the mechanism of the Brennan Fish Torpedo is known to various persons.

1.   A torpedo which involved the principle of propulsion by unwinding two drums and steering by the differential strain or tension on the two wires, has been patented, and the specification is accessible to the public.

2.   As regards the torpedo brought home by Mr. Brennan in 1881, from Australia, which differs entirely in all its internal arrangements from those set forth in the specification of the above-mentioned patent, the following  persons are acquainted with all the details of the mechanism:-  Messrs. Brennan, Temperley, and Calvert, Professor Kernot, Messrs. Miller, Argent, in addition to certain Admiralty and War Office Officials; and furthermore, several persons had opportunities of a more or less complete inspection of the internal mechanism of the torpedo.

3.   Since the date of the arrival of the torpedo in England, and before its trials by the Royal Engineer Committee in 1881, improvements were made in its internal mechanism, more especially as regards steering and depth apparatus.  With these improvements the following persons are acquainted in full detail:-  Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, Argent, and a lad named Charles Mead.  It is possible that a partial knowledge of the interior mechanism, but not of the aforesaid improvements was acquired by Corporal Henwood, R.E.

4.   Since the date of the trials by the Royal Engineer Committee in 1881, an entirely new weapon has been constructed, which includes many improvements in detail, and is furnished with an entirely novel depth mechanism.  It is to this depth mechanism that the inventor attributes the possibility of successfully using the torpedo.  With these improvements the following persons only are acquainted:-  Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, Argent, lad named Charles Mead, in addition of three Officers, Royal Engineers.
Furthermore, several persons, namely:-  William Munro, John Oliver, David Todd, John Hart Browning, being the workmen employed in making certain parts of the torpedo and in its manipulation, have a partial acquaintance with certain parts of its mechanism other than its depth mechanism.

5.   Messrs. Brennan and Temperley state that such precautions were taken by them as to prevent the possibility of surreptitious access to the torpedo, or the acquirement by any unauthorised person of a knowledge of its secret parts.


In order to facilitate secrecy, the inventor proposes to enclose the whole of the secret portion of the steering and depth mechanism in a single closed metallic case of drum, which need not be larger than 18 inches long by 9 inches diameter, and which need never be opened at out-stations, nor could be so opened without actual violence.

I have, after careful inspection of the parts, satisfied myself that this could be done, and that the case so prepared could be kept in store for years without impairing the efficiency of the enclosed apparatus.

M. T. Sale, Major, R.E.

25th October 1886.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 27, 2014, 11:35:20

The terms put forward by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, as agents for the Brennan Torpedo Company, for the exclusive use of their torpedo by the English Government, are-

1.   The payment of a lump sum of 40,000l.
2.   That royalties be granted to them, being-
100l. per torpedo for the first 200 torpedoes.
50l. per torpedo for the next 200 torpedoes.
25l. per torpedo for any future torpedoes, within 14 years.

3.   That if at the end of five years the Brennan torpedo is an established and working success, a further sum of 40,000l. be paid to Messrs Brennan and Temperley.
Should the secret, through any shortcomings on the part of the aforesaid gentlemen, be disclosed, then the sum of 40,000l. shall not be paid, nor shall any further royalties be paid by Government.
If during the term of five years the Government shall see fit to abandon the manufacture of use of the Brennan torpedo, then, in lieu of the payment of 40,000l., the following payments shall be made:-
If abandoned at the end of the first year 8,000l.
If abandoned at the end of the second year 16,000l.
If abandoned at the end of the third year 24,000l.
If abandoned at the end of the fourth year 32,000l.

4.   If the royalties under clause 2 exceed within five years the sun of 20,000l., then the sum of 40,000l., mentioned in the preceding paragraph, shall suffer an abatement to the amount of the excess.

5.   If during the aforesaid term of five years the Government abandon the further use of the torpedo, then Messrs. Brennan and Temperley shall be at liberty to sell their invention to other Governments, on the condition that they abandon their claim to the payment set forth in Clause 3.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: TonyYoung on January 27, 2014, 13:45:42
Ekky thump!! Kyn  - to avoid a more expletive deleted comment! that sort of research is unbelievable - that lot was fascinating reading and well bl**dy done.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 27, 2014, 14:36:34
There are loads yet to come!  I will add more as and when I have time :)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 27, 2014, 15:44:58
Admiralty replied to the letter of 27th October on 11th November:-

Admiralty to War Office.

I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to acquaint you, for the information of the Secretary of State for War, with reference to your letter of the 27th ultimo, in regards to the Brennan torpedo, that my Lords are of opinion that, although this weapon would doubtless prove of very considerable value as a means of protection for mouths of harbours, coaling stations, &c., and, consequently, a very desirable invention for the Land Service, they do not consider it to be suitable for the Naval Service, and, therefore, must decline to expend money from Naval Votes in combination with War Office in its purchase; but they are quite willing to join the Secretary of State for War in a statement to the Treasury, to the effect that it is, in their opinion, desirable to purchase the invention as a valuable weapon for the protection of harbours, coaling stations, &c.; but, with regard to the question of purchasing the secret, and the sole right of its manufacture and use, my Lords fear that, in the present state of mechanical science, and invention which is considered to be of great value by other Powers would not remain a secret for any length of time, and, consequently, the advisability of purchasing this right, at a very high price, is, in their opinion, questionable.

On 1st December the following letter was written to the Treasury, by order of the Secretary of State:-

War Office to Treasury.

I am directed by Mr. Secretary Smith to transmit to you, for the early consideration of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, the following confidential prints and papers relating to the Brennan torpedo, viz:-

1.   Precis, with correspondence, 1882-86, relating to Mr. Brennan’s employment, and containing the agreements of 13th February 1883 and 18th March 1886.
2.   Print No. 2 (secret), containing minute by the Inspector-General of Fortifications, submitting results of trial.
3.   Print No. 3 (secret), * submitting provisional proposals as to the terms upon which the invention may be purchased.
4.   War Office letter to the Admiralty, 27th October 1886, and Admiralty reply 11th November, 1886, as to the importance or otherwise of acquiring the sole rights of manufacture.
I am to state, for their Lordships’ information, that a special Committee organized as proposed on page 9 of Print No. 1, has been engaged in considering the question as to adopting the Brennan torpedo into Her Majesty’s Service, and, although they have as yet made no formal report or submission, the Committee have recorded their unanimous opinion that the value and importance of the invention is such as to warrant them in recommending its purchase for the use of the British Government.

Their Lordships will see from the papers that a very considerable sum of money is involved in this matter, and it is also of the most pressing necessity to come to a speedy decision, looking to the fact that Mr. Brennan has, be letter dated the 18th October 1886, given formal notice, in accordance with the agreement dated 13th February 1883, that his torpedo is complete and fir for trial, and the government are, therefore, called upon to declare their intentions in regard to purchase within two months from that date.

Mr. Brennan having so far fulfilled his engagement, the trials of his torpedo have been made with successful results, and the Committee having resolved as above stated, Mr. Smith has come to the conclusion that it is now necessary to treat with Mr. Brennan.

As, however, it would seem to be essential that any agreement in treating should be final and binding upon the Government, subject to all necessary legal questions being adequately adjusted, I am directed by Mr. Smith to invite the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury to nominate an Officer, on their behalf, to serve upon and assist the Committee, for the purpose of recommending a basis for negotiating in this very important matter.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 28, 2014, 10:06:56
Treasury replied 4th December 1886:-

Treasury to war Office.

The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury have had before them Mr. Knox’s letter of the 1st instant, stating that Mr. Secretary Smith invites them to nominate an Officer, on their behalf, to serve upon the Committee which is considering the question of the adoption of the Brennan torpedo into Her Majesty’s Service, and to assist them in arriving at a basis of negotiation with Mr. Brennan for the purchase of his invention.

My Lords direct me to state that they accede to the request of the Secretary of State upon condition that the basis of negotiation recommended by the Committee shall, if approved by Mr. Smith, be submitted to this department likewise for approval, before Her Majesty’s Government is committed to its adoption.

Assuming that Mr. Secretary Smith accepts the foregoing condition, my Lords nominate Mr. G. L. Ryder as their representative on the Committee.

On the same day the Treasury Solicitor forwarded the following reminder he had received from Mr. Malleson, dated 3rd December 1886, viz:-

Mr. Malleson to Treasury Solicitor.

Not hearing from you consequent of 18th October which I sent you, and you acknowledged, I beg to remind you the notice expires on the 18th of this month, and there is therefore very little time left for considering any arrangement that may be proposed.

The Committee held a fifth meeting on 9th December 1886.

A memorandum, drawn up by the Secretary, showing the state of the question at that time, and suggesting the points which required consideration, was read and considered.

After discussion and consideration of alternative schemes which presented themselves as bases for negotiations, the Committee, subject to the considerations mentioned below, decided in favour of the following, and recommended that steps should be taken by the Chairman to ascertain whether Messrs. Brennan and Temperley would be willing to enter into negotiations on that basis, viz:-

Pay 30,000l. down.
Agree to take no account, either of the 5,000l. paid in 1883, or of the salary of 1,000l. a year paid up to this date to Mr. Brennan.
Messrs. Brennan and Temperley to enter into the service of the Government, at salaries to be agreed upon, with royalties according to Major Sale’s scheme, or by equal annual instalments of the total amount to be paid under the next clause.
Government to guarantee a maximum payment, excluding salaries, of 100,000l. within five or seven years, subject to earlier abandonment, according to Major Sale’s scheme, 3; also with Major Sale’s conditions as to disclosure, and a further stipulation to be made that after such period of five or seven years, the Government should still retain exclusive property in the invention.

The conditions subject to which the Committee submitted their recommendation, were:-

1.   Director of Naval Ordnance agreed as to the importance of retaining Mr. Brennan’s services, but would not pay what he considered would be the exorbitant sum involved (as compared with the price paid for the Whitehead torpedo) to secure the secret and exclusive right of the Brennan torpedo.
2.   The Treasury members recorded his opinion that the salaries to be agreed upon should be limited to say, 2,000l. a year, which should cover, not only Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, but also the remuneration to be paid to Argent.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 29, 2014, 14:25:22
Finally, the Committee resolved that immediate steps should be taken to secure, if possible, a short extension of the agreement expiring on 18th December 1886, so as to afford sufficient time to conclude the negotiations.

On 10th December 1886, Mr. Ryder (Treasury) notified to Mr. a.’Beckett (Private Secretary to the Surveyor-General) that he had authority from Mr. Jackson (Financial secretary to the Treasury)to say that the Chancellor of the Exchequer approved of negotiations being opened with Mr. Brennan in the basis recommended by the committee.  The Chancellor of the Exchequer did not wish to be committed to payment before 1st April 1887, and he reserved the option of paying by supplementary in 1886-87, or from the Votes of next year.  He also wished to record that he embarked in this large expenditure in the faith that the Secretary of state would regard it as in substitution for some other equivalent expenditure on armaments, not as a sheer addition to estimates.

After their fifth meeting (9th December 1886) the Committee, having recommended the purchase of the invention, practically ceased to exist, and the negotiations with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley were undertaken by the Surveyor-General of the Ordnance on behalf of the Government, with the knowledge and sanction of the Secretary of state and the Treasury.

An interview was held with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley at the war Office, 11th December 1886.

The Surveyor-General stated that he was authorized by the Secretary of state to make an offer to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, which whilst it might be received as official, would of course be subject to proper legal settlement of details.  The offer was as follows:-

Government to pay 30,000l. within six months.
No account to be taken of any past payments.
Government undertake to pay a further sum of 70,000l. within five years from 1st April 1887, either by royalties or by instalments, subject to conditions as to earlier abandonment or disclosure.
Messrs. Brennan and Temperley to enter the service of the Government for a term of not less than five years, at a salary of 1,000l. a year each, and to undertake to give their whole service.
Argent to be employed on the same scale as an Assistant Manager, at 300l., rising by 10l. to 400l. a year.
The torpedo to be the property of the Government, of course with exclusive right of manufacture.
Extend present agreement for one month, to allow of completion of negotiation.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 29, 2014, 17:36:21
A second interview was held on 13th December 1886.
Messrs. Brennan and Temperley stated that the Government offer did not come up to their expectation, which was 110,000l. (including 40,000l. down) in five years, or the present value of 100,000l.  They also expected development of the torpedo for the Navy.

With regard to the proposed appointments, it was assumed by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley that they would be placed in the position of heads of departments, which was understood.  They asked for 2,000l. and 1,500l. a year respectively.  (They preferred fixed annual instalments to royalties).  They observed there would be no difficulty as to argent.

It was understood that the 30,000l. was to be free of income duty.

A record of this interview was sent to the Treasury, and on 14th December 1886, Mr. Ryder wrote to Mr. a’Beckett to the following effect:-

The Chancellor of the exchequer agrees to the payment of the 30,000l. within three months, if Mr. Smith finds it necessary.  He also concurs in salaries of 1,500l. and 1,200l. being offered to Mr. Brennan and Mr. Temperley respectively, to include house allowance, and all emoluments.  It is understood that these gentlemen will have no claim to pension, and that their salaries are fixed so high on this amongst other considerations.  The salaries are of course to be purely personal to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.

A third interview with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley was held on 14th December 1886.

The Surveyor-General read Mr. Ryde’s note referred to above, as containing the final offer of the Government.  A discussion ensued, in which Messrs. Brennan and Temperley evinced a disinclination to accept less than 110,000l. and some dissatisfaction with the salaries proposed, and among other things they expressed a wish to reserve liberty to treat also with the Admiralty as to the use of the weapon by the Navy.  It was pointed out to them that the Government were dealing with them irrespective of departments.

Mr. Temperley handed in his notes of the first interview, but Mr. Northcote pointed out that in some respects they differed from the terms now offered for acceptance.

A fourth interview was held on 15th December 1886.

Messrs. Brennan and Temperley stated that they would make no difficulty as to accepting the salaries offered, or as to the 30,000l., subject to payment in six or three months, as the Government might decide, providing other points were agreed to.

But they pressed, in the interests of their company, and as making all the difference between satisfaction and dissatisfaction to their employers, the question of the additional 10,000l., which they considered a fair compromise between their original offer and the latest offer of the Government.

The Surveyor-General took this intimation as referendum, and said he would mention it to the Secretary of state.

Other points were agreed to, and the only open question was simply one of 80,000l. or 70,000l. (as offered by the Government), spread over five equal annual instalments, i.e., 16,000l. or 14,000l. per annum; and it was quite understood that the general agreement under treaty carried with it all improvements and developments which might be made in the torpedo.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on February 04, 2014, 16:46:26
A fifth interview was held on 16th December 1886.

The Surveyor-General stated that, having seen the Secretary of State, and explained to him the views of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, as expressed at the last meeting, and having been authorized to refer again to the Treasury, he was able to notify their agreement to the compromise of 80,000l.

It was proposed that the Treasury Solicitor should meet Messrs. Brennan and Temperley’s legal representative at once for the purpose of extending the agreement of 13th February 1883, for a period of one month from 18th December 1886, to afford time for drawing up the necessary final agreement.

Mr. Brennan expressed himself as highly gratified that his invention should have been accepted by the British Government, and asked for a letter notifying the request for an extension of one month for the purpose stated.

A letter was accordingly addressed to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, 17th December 1886, stating that it was essential that the solicitors on both sides should meet on that day in order to arrange for a further extension for one month of the option accorded by Clause 9 of the agreement of 13th February 1883 to the Secretary of State for the purchase and exclusive use of the torpedo, so as to afford time for drawing up a final agreement between themselves and the Government.

Articles of Agreement were accordingly drawn, and executed on 18th December 1886, by which the term was extended for one calendar month.

The Surveyor-General submitted the above mentioned agreement to the Secretary of state, 20th December 1886, and proposed to instruct the Treasury Solicitor to prepare a legal agreement on the following basis:-

“The torpedo, with all its developments, to become the exclusive property of Her Majesty’s Government, upon the following terms:-

“Payment to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley of a sum of 110,000l. by instalments, viz;)

“30,000l. within six months.

“Five annual payments of 16,000l.; the first payment to be made by the close of the financial year 1887-88, the second by the close of the financial year 1888-89, and so on.

“These payments to be made without any deduction for income tax.

“Messrs. Brennan and Temperley to enter the service of Her Majesty’s Government from 18th January 1887, for a period of not less than five years from April 1st 1887, at salaries of 1,500l. and 1,200l. respectively; and to undertake to devote their whole energies to the manufacture and development of the torpedo.

“These salaries to carry no claim to pension, lodging, or any other allowances.

“No account, however, to be taken of moneys already paid by the Government to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.

“Messrs. Brennan and Temperley’s chief foreman, a man named Argent, to enter Government service for the same time as Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, at a salary equal to that of an assistant manager of factories – viz., 300l. a year, with annual increment of 10l. up to 400l.

“Any wilful betrayal, or gross culpable neglect, on the part of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, by which the secret is made known, or refusal on their part faithfully to carry out the work necessary for the construction of the torpedo, to involve cancellation of the agreement, and to deprive Messrs. Brennan and Temperley of all claim against the Government, including the payment of the instalment for the year that may then be current, and the torpedo to remain the absolute property if Her Majesty’s Government.

“The torpedo under any circumstances to be the absolute property of Her Majesty’s Government at the end of five years, the 110,000l. having been paid, and Messrs. Brennan and Temperley to undertake not to communicate its secret to any Foreign or Colonial Government.

“Should Her Majesty’s Government think fit to discontinue the manufacture of the torpedo before the expiration of the five years, they shall have the right to do so, and to dispense with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley’s services on the payment of such sums as may be due up to date; the exclusive rights of future manufacture of the torpedo then to revert to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.”

The Surveyor-General concluded-

“If you approve, I will ask the Treasury solicitor to draft a legal agreement on this basis, and to submit it to me.”
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on February 05, 2014, 16:03:34
Mr. Smith, 26th December 1886, minuted as follows:-

“Yes, but it must be made clear in the agreement that not only the torpedo as it now exists, but every improvement in it effected by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley during the five years of their engagement becomes under the instrument the absolute property of Her Majesty’s Government without any additional payment, with all patent rights belonging to the torpedo and its developments.”

Mr. Northcote, on 28th December 1886, sent the papers (unofficially) to Mr. Jackson, saying that Mr. Smith had suggested that he should ask Mr. Jackson to look at the memorandum drawn up to form the basis of agreement with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, and to say if he thought any points of importance had been omitted.

Mr. Jackson replied, 29th December 1886, suggesting that the words in italics in Mr. Smith’s minute of 26th December 1886 should be struck out, as the department was entitled to become absolute owners of the torpedo, and all present and future improvements.

He observed also that there was one omission which appeared to him to be of vital importance – viz., the absence of Argent as a party to the agreement.  He remarked that the Inspector-General of Fortifications had stated that Argent was in possession of the secret; and that in the copy of Mr. Temperley’s notes, 14th December 1886, he stipulated that Argent was not to be a party to the agreement.  He continued. “not if three men are in possession of the secret, and you buy only two of them, the third is free to compel you to buy shim, or free to sell to others hereafter and it appears to me that unless you make your control to include all those who can impart the secret you may find yourself in the position of having to buy again, or you may find that you are neither sole possessors nor sole manufacturers.”

A sixth interview was held on 31st December 1886.

The Surveyor-General mentioned the point which had been raised as to Mr. Argent, and read that portion of Mr. Jackson’s note which related to it.

Mr. Brennan thought some separate agreement might be signed.  Mr. Temperley observed that Argent could not well be a party to the general agreement, as he was not a member of the company.

Mr. Brennan admitted that argent undoubtedly was in possession of such information as would enable an intelligent Engineer to obtain valuable possession of the secret.

It was elicited that Argent had no claim for a share of the reward, but that he would be liberally dealt with.

The discussion resolved itself into a demand on the part of the government, that Messrs. Brennan and Temperley should give bond for Argent in the amount of 10,000l.

They retired to consider the matter, and later on the same day, a seventh interview was held (present as at the sixth) at which Messrs. Brennan and Temperley signified their willingness to enter into a bond of 10,000l. as proposed, diminishing yearly by 2,000l. a year.

On the same day, 31st December 1886, Mr. Northcote wrote to Mr. Jackson discussing the matter, stating the result of the interview, and asking if the bond would palliate his objections.

In reply, Mr. Jackson, 4th January 1886, said that he had carefully considered the conditions of the proposed agreement, but was unable to come to any other conclusion than that stated in his letter of 29th December.  He had stated the case and handed the papers to the Solicitor, asking him to express his opinion as to what should be done.  Mr. Jackson enclosed, confidentially, Sir. A. K. Stephenson’s answer, which did not lessen his objection.  He felt that Mr. Northcote having been good enough to refer the papers to him, placed on him an additional responsibility, and that although it was not for him to decide whether the agreement, as proposed, should be entered into or not, it was his duty to point out that if Mr. Smith thought it necessary to make the agreement, he should do so with full recognition of the risk attaching to it.

In Sir. A. K. Stephenson’s memorandum, which was forwarded by Mr. Jackson, after discussing the exact state of the question, - Messrs. Brennan and Temperley’s objections to Argent being made a party to the agreement – and their probable reasons; he said that the bond which they offered seemed to him wholly inadequate, and that in his view the proper course would be for the War department to put the proposal clearly and distinctly to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, as Mr. Jackson had put in his letter to Mr. Northcote, of three men being in possession of a secret, and ask them to come to terms with their servant, Argent, under which he would bind himself, as they were about to do, under the agreement, to keep the secret.  He thought that, however stringent the terms of the agreement might be made with Brennan and Temperley, some further attempt ought to be made to make terms as stringent with Argent, and that the Treasury would not be justified in assenting to the agreement with the absence of Argent without further attempt to getting him made a party to it.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on February 10, 2014, 16:24:11
The papers having been submitted to Mr. Smith, he, in a note addressed to Mr. Northcote, dated 5th January 1887, agreed with Mr. Jackson that all who were acquainted with the secret must join in the contract and obligation.  He said the bond for 10,000l. would not do; and that Messrs. Brennan and Temperley must be told that some how they must bring argent into the contract to the satisfaction of the Solicitor.  He quite agreed to the omission of the words italicized in his minute of 26th December 1886.

An eighth interview was held with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley on 5th January 1887.

He Surveyor-General explained that the Treasury held to the view previously taken as to the contract, which should be signed by all who possessed the secret; and that the Secretary of State endorsed this view.  He read that portion of Mr. Smith’s note above-mentioned which referred to this point.

A discussion ensued, in which Messrs.  Brennan and Temperley stated that the matter presented great difficulties; that it in effect resolved itself into their being responsibility for Argent, and that they thought the bargain had been concluded.  The Surveyor-General pointed out that all had depended on Treasury approval.

Another interview (the ninth) was held later on the same day (5th January 1887). 

Mr. Northcote said he had been to the Treasury and explained what had been urged by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.  He asked if they would object to Argent entering into a separate bond, or solemn agreement.  They thought it would be a natural thing to do; their bond would of course be in addition.  It was explained that even if Argent left it would be a long time before such knowledge as he possessed could be turned to practical account.

It was suggested that in case Messrs. Brennan and Temperley were going to award Argent any sum, they might consider the propriety of spreading it, as an additional hold upon him.  They accepted this suggestion; and sated, moreover, that Argent and all the men associated with them had signed declarations to them to preserve secrecy.

On the whole there seemed no difficulty in securing Mr. Argent, so far as such a bond or agreement was concerned, and they agreed to have a draft prepared.

A tenth interview was held on 6th January 1887.

Mr. Temperley said a draft had been drawn up for Mr. Argent.  It contained more than they thought necessary, but that would be for consideration with Treasury Solicitor.

Mr. Northcote read a letter he was writing to the Treasury, with Mr. Smith’s consent.

Mr. Temperley said Mr. Argent had about 500l. of his own, and was willing to enter into a bond for all he possessed.  They proposed to give him a bonus of 100l. on 1st April 1887, and 400l. more at the end of five years; and there would be an undertaking that he should immediately notify any letters received or any attempt to obtain from him secret information.

Mr. Northcote, on the same day (6th January 1887), wrote a letter – above referred to – to Mr. Jackson, stating what had passed at the interview of 5th January, and that the Secretary of State had authorized him to settle the matter, subject to the approval of Mr. Jackson and Sir A. Stephenson.

Mr. Jackson replied, 7th January 1887.  He thought the basis of an agreement could be found, and that Argent could be made a party to the agreement sufficiently to give reasonable security for his secrecy.  He promised to send in writing the heads of an agreement, which he and sir. A. Stephenson would suggest, and which would probably be acceptable to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.

Draft agreements were accordingly prepared, and were handed by Mr. Jackson to Mr. Engelback at the Treasury, on the evening of the 11th January 1887, and an eleventh interview was immediately held at which the drafts were read and discussed.

1.   Draft Agreement with the Brennan Torpedo Company (Limited), and others for the purchase of the invention of the Brennan Fish Torpedo, and for the employment of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley in the service of the War Department.

Questions arose on the following points:-

First payment. – Period of six months for, rather demurred to.  War Office thought three might be substituted.  This had been practically conceded in previous interviews.

Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, or either of them, being required to proceed out of the United Kingdom.

Mr. Brennan raised no objection.  Mr. Temperley rather demurred.  War Office must retain full discretion.

As to discontinuance of manufacture involving also abandonment of the use of the torpedoes then in possession.

It was explained that such a point could not be conceded.

The following points raised in a memo. By Mr. Ramadge on the draft agreement were discussed:-

(a.)   As to the greater convenience in some respects of separate agreements for the employment of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.
This, so far as the War Office was concerned, was not deemed material.

(b.)   As to confirmation of the agreement by a deed under the Company’s seal.
Messrs. Brennan and Temperley said there would be no difficulty in obtaining this, it being understood that the negotiations would not be delayed for it.

(c.)   As to special power of attorney from the Company for each instalment.
No difficulty in this.

Another point was mentioned, as had been desired in conversation by Mr Jackson – viz., as to existing patents and the desirability of calling upon Messrs. Brennan and Temperley to take out patents abroad for the greater security of the Government rights and their hold over Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.

It appeared that the only patent existing is the British patent of 4th September 1877.  There are none abroad; and, as a matter of fact, such patents are not respected by Foreign Governments.

War Office agreed with Messrs. Brennan and Temperley that it was not desirable to move in this matter.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on February 11, 2014, 09:20:47
2.   Draft Agreement for the employment of Mr. Argent in the service of the War department, in the manufacture of Brennan fish torpedo.

No question arose on this.

3.   Draft Crown Bond by Messrs. Brennan and Temperley, and defeasance thereto, providing for Messrs. Brennan and Temperley to be bound in 20,000l.; conditionally on Argent’s breach of secrecy.

Messrs. Brennan and Temperley did not quite understand why 20,000l. was named in the bond; but this point (believed to be a purely legal formality) would, it was thought, no doubt be explained if necessary.

They also mentioned that they had understood that the Company, and not themselves individually, were to give the bond.

This was not at all understood by the War Office representatives; and no mention of the Company had been made in previous interviews.

It was mentioned to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley that, probably, the Company would indemnify them; at the same time, if the Treasury Solicitor was satisfied to take the Company’s Bond instead of theirs, the War Office would make no objection.

The record was sent to Treasury Solicitor, 12th January 1887.  He notified, 13th January 1887, that necessary alterations had been made in the drafts, and that a new Clause (13) had been inserted, providing that Messrs. Brennan and Temperley should at any time, if called upon, take out patents abroad or at home, for any improvements, and assign the same to the Secretary of State.

A twelfth interview was held on 15th January 1887.

Draft agreements, as altered by the other side, were discussed, and points as to contract (Clauses 2 and 14) and stamping of agreement (Clause 19) were settled.

Messrs. Brennan and Temperley had altered clauses as to reserving the first payment of 30,000l. from the effect of any wilful breach, and as to not engaging in any other business “that would interfere with their employment under the agreement.”  They, however, agreed to waive these alterations.  Clauses 15 and 16 were amended, so as to provide for payment pro rata up to date of disclosure or discontinuance, of instalment of 16,000l. then accruing.  This was agreed to.

A point was made as to argent’s increments of salary being such (25l. instead of 10l. a-year) as would bring him to the maximum of 400l. for the fifth year.

This was agreed to.

The papers were returned to Treasury Solicitor for preparation of final documents.

The following letter was addressed to the Treasury, 15th January 1887:-

War Office to Treasury

Referring to previous correspondence and to the inter-departmental communications that have passed in regard to purchase of the Brennan Torpedo.

I am directed by the Secretary of State for War to request that you will move the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury to signify their sanction to the general terms that have been agreed upon as embodied in the deeds, which have been settled by the Treasury Solicitor.

As their Lordships are aware, the main financial considerations involved, apart from the legal provisions and safeguards which are duly set out in the agreements, are as follows:-

1.   Payments of 110,000l. (without deduction for Income Tax) spread over five years, and six instalments; the first instalment of 30,000l. being payable this year, and the remaining five instalments at the rate of 16,000l. a-year.

2.   The employment of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley at consolidated salaries of 1,500l. and 1,200l. a-year, including all allowances, to date from 18th January 1887, and continue under certain conditions to the 31st March 1892.

3.   The employment of Mr. Argent as foreman from the same date, and for the same period, at 300l. a-year, rising by 25l. a-year to a maximum of 400l.

I am, &c.,
W. St. John Brodrick.

The Treasury replied as follows, 16th January 1887:-

Treasury to War Office.

The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury have had before them your letter of the 15th instant, requesting their formal sanction to the terms which have been already made, with the semi-official concurrence of this department, for the purchase of the Brennan Torpedo.

My Lords request you to inform the Secretary of State that they agree to the following terms, on condition that the purchase includes, not merely the torpedo as it now exists, but the exclusive property in all subsequent improvements thereof by the inventors, whether whilst in the service of Government or not:-

1.   The payment of 110,000l. (without deduction for Income Tax) spread over five years, and six instalments; the first instalment of 30,000l. being payable this year, and the remaining five instalments at the rate of 16,000l. a-year.

2.   The employment of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley at consolidated salaries of 1,500l. and 1,200l. a-year, including all allowances, to date from 18th January 1887, and continue under certain conditions to the 31st March 1892.

3.   The employment of Mr. Argent as foreman from the same date, and for the same period, at 300l. a-year, rising by 25l. a-year to a maximum of 400l.

Their Lordships have consented to these terms, the liberality of which exceeds all precedent, in the hope that the acquisition of the torpedo will prove them and of greatly reducing expenditure in defending, more especially mercantile ports at home, and the smaller coaling stations abroad.

I am, &c.,
R.E. Welby.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on February 13, 2014, 17:54:08
The complete agreements and bond, dated 18th January 1887, were duly executed, and letters of appointment were written to Messrs. Brennan and Temperley respectively, on 26th January 1887.

The following are abstracts of the Articles of Agreement and Bond above mentioned:-

I.   Articles of Agreement made 18th January 1887, between Louis Brennan, and John Nesbit Malleson, agents for the Brennan Torpedo Company, Limited, of the first part, Louis Brennan on his own behalf, of the second part, John Ridley Temperley of the third part, William Calvert of the fourth part, and Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, War Department, of the fifth part.

After mention of previous agreements, deeds, &c., the specific articles of agreement are set forth to the following effect:-

1.   The Secretary of state shall, upon terms hereinafter mentioned, purchase the invention and exclusive use of the Brennan Fish Torpedo, and of all improvements, inventions, patent rights and secrets relating thereto.

2.   Full information of secrets shall be given to the Secretary of State, or to such persons as he shall appoint; persons receiving such information not to divulge it without consent in writing of Secretary of State, such consent not to be given in the event of the 18th clause coming into operation.

3.   The purchase shall include Patent of 4th September 1877, mentioned in the agreement of 1883, and all other the premises assigned or to be assigned by the indenture mentioned therein of 17th December 1880, and also the benefit of all the covenants contained in the said indenture on the part of L. Brennan, W. Calvert, C.G. Miller, and J.R. Temperley.

4.   The purchase shall include all modifications, alterations, and improvements of the invention, which may hereafter be invented by or suggest themselves to L. Brennan and J.R. Temperley, and their exclusive use.

5.   The improved Brennan Fish Torpedo already constructed, with all its mechanism and appurtenances, shall be included in the purchase.

6.   The Company, and L. Brennan, J.R. Temperley, and W. Calvert, shall at all times, at the request and cost of the Secretary of state, execute all such assignments, &c., as he shall require for vesting in him anything comprised in the purchase, and that without any lien on unpaid purchase-money.

7.   The purchase-money to be paid shall be 110,000l. payable by instalments and shall belong to and be paid to the Company, whose receipt shall be a sufficient discharge.

8.   An instalment of 30,000l. shall be paid before the expiration of three calendar months from date.  The remainder of the purchase-money to be paid by five annual instalments of 16,000l. each, the first to be paid on 31st March 1888, and another on each succeeding 31st March until the whole be paid, but without interest in the meantime, each to be without deduction for Income Tax, and to be considered to accrue from day to day and be apportioned accordingly.

9.   L. Brenna and J.R. Temperley, shall be employed by the War Department up to 31st March 1892, in the manufacture and improvement of the Brennan Fish Torpedo, L. Brennan as Superintendent, and J.R. Temperley as Assistant Superintendent; the employment to be determinable as hereinafter mentioned.  Each of them to give his whole time, energy, and attention to the work, and to give the Secretary of State full information of all improvements.

10.   L. Brenna, whilst employed, shall receive 1,500l. per annum, and J.R. Temperley 1,200l. per annum.  Salaries to be paid quarterly.  Neither of them to have any claim to pension.

11.   Each of them to reside, whilst employed, within 20 miles of the principal Government manufactory of the torpedoes; to go to such places as may be directed by the Secretary of State, or officers empowered by him.
Salary should cover lodging and other allowances, save usual allowances for travelling.

12.   Each of them. Whilst employed, shall give his whole time, energy, and attention to the purposes for which he shall be employed, and neither of them shall, without consent of the Secretary of state, engage in any other business.

13.   Each of them will, whilst employed at any time, at the request and cost of the Secretary of State, take out any patents for the invention or improvements by them, and assign them to the Secretary of State.

14.   The company, L. Brennan, J.R. Temperley, and W. Calvert will keep secret the construction of the invention, and of all modifications, improvement, &c., save such matters as appear from the published specification of the hereinbefore mentioned Letters Patent, and neither the Company nor either of the persons named above, nor any person by their direction or consent will, without the consent in writing, of the Secretary of State, give any information with respect to the invention, modifications, &c., to any other of them, or to any other persons other than the persons appointed by the Secretary of State, in pursuance of Clause 2.

15.   If at any time before the payment of the whole of the purchase-money there shall be any breach of Clause 14, then every instalment remaining to be paid shall cease to be payable, and that without prejudice to any right of action by the Secretary of State, provided that there shall be paid so much of such instalment as shall have accrued due between 31st March immediately preceding such breach and the date of such breach.

16.   If, whilst either L. Brennan and J.R. Temperley are employed, he shall neglect or refuse faithfully to serve the War Department, the Secretary of State shall be at liberty to dismiss him; and every instalment, if any, then remaining to be paid of the purchase-money, shall thereupon cease to be payable.  Provided as in 15 with regard to any amount accrued since the preceding 31st March.

17.   If at any time whilst L. Brennan and J.R. Temperley shall be employed, the Secretary of State shall determine to abandon the manufacture of the invention, then the Secretary of State shall be at liberty to dismiss them.

18.   If at any time before payment of the whole of the purchase-money the Secretary of State shall determine to abandon the manufacture, then all the instalments remaining to be paid shall cease to be payable, and the premises comprised in the purchase-money shall revert to the Company; but all torpedoes, mechanism, &c., previously manufactures for the Secretary of State, shall remain his property.

19.   The Secretary of State shall procure duplicates of the agreement to be stamped at request of Company.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on March 14, 2014, 13:42:10
II.   Articles of Agreement made 18th January 1887 between Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, War Department, of the one part, and George Argent of the other part.

1.   G. Argent shall be employed in the War Department as foreman in the manufacture, &c., of the Brennan Fish Torpedo up to 31st March 1892, and thenceforth from month to month, as the Secretary of state shall think fit, and he shall agree.

2.   He shall receive, whilst so employed, the salary hereinafter mentioned payable quarterly.

3.   Salary to be at the rate of 300l. per annum up to 31st March 1888, and thenceforth increase at 25l. per annum, but not to exceed 400l. per annum, not to cover travelling expenses.

4.   G. Argent, while employed, shall go to and reside in such places in the United Kingdom as may be decided by the secretary of State, and shall obey orders of Secretary of State, or Officer placed over him.

5.   He shall not, whilst employed, without the consent of the secretary of State, engage in any other business.

6.   He shall at all times keep secret the construction of the invention, and all modifications, &c., save such matters as appear from published specifications of Letters Patent, dated 4th September 1877, granted to H. J. Haddon.  And he shall not at any time, without consent in writing of the Secretary of state, give any information whatever with respect to the invention, or any modifications, &c., therein to any person.

7.   If at any time, whilst employed, he shall neglect or refuse to serve the War Department, or shall commit any breach of clause 6, then the Secretary of State shall be at liberty to dismiss him.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on April 25, 2014, 11:46:46
III. Bond

L. Brennan and J.R. Temperley declare themselves bound to the Queen in the sum of 20,oool., subject to the following conditions:-

If. G. Argent shall not, during five years from 18th January 1887, commit any breach of Clause 6 of Articles of Agreement made between the Secretary of State and him (see above II.)
If he shall, during one year from 18th January 1887, commit such breach, and the parties to this bond shall pay the Queen 10,000l. as damages.
If he shall, during one year from 18th January 1888, commit such breach, and 8,000l. be paid as above.
If he shall, during one year from 18th January 1889, commit such breach, and 6,000l. be paid.
If he shall, during one year from 18th January 1890, commit such breach, and 4,000l. be paid.
If he shall, during one year from 18th January 1891, commit such breach, and 2,000l. be paid.

It was arranged on 17th January 1887 (Minute by President, Royal Engineer Committee), that pending information as to the official decision on future arrangements, the secret parts had been taken out of the complete torpedo, separated, and part safely stored at Sheerness and part at Chatham, such parts being in charge of Messrs. Brennan and Temperley.

While the negotiations above referred to were in progress, viz:- on 16th December 1886, the Agent-General for the Colony of Victoria wrote, stating that the Minister of Defence at Melbourne had requested him to obtain a full report of the capabilities and powers of the Brennan Torpedo, and asked at what price his Government could be supplied.

He remarked that the Government of Victoria bore the charge of the first experiments with this torpedo, and have since watched, with natural interest, the reports of the trials to which it has been subjected; and he requested that directions might be given that he should be furnished with the information required.

Director of Artillery, 20th December 1886, observed to Inspector-General of Fortifications, that at that time the department was not, in his opinion, in a position to give a definite reply, moreover, he was not aware that the Victorian Government had advanced any moneys towards preliminary experiments; and there was no mention of such advances in the official papers.

Inspector-General of Fortifications, 24th December 1886, agreed.  He had never heard before of the assistance referred to.

The Surveyor-General of Ordnance saw that Agent-General (Sir Graham Berry) on 4th January 1887, and told him that negotiations with Brennan were not concluded, and that in the event of the torpedo being purchased, his letter should, after reference to the Secretary of State, be replied to officially.

On 27th January 1887, the Surveyor-General again referred to the Inspector-General of Fortifications, 12th February 1887, thought it would be advisable to communicate in confidence to the Victorian Government the general results of the trials recently concluded, which he detailed.

He remarked that is would scarcely be possible to name an accurate price for manufacture at the present time.  The approximate estimate for each installation of 12 torpedoes, including engine buildings, &c., is 6,800l. but this is only a rough approximation, the torpedo itself being priced at about 300l.

He added, although the Colonies might in process of time be supplied with the torpedo, &c., it would not be advisable to supply the weapon until experience has shown what practical precautions may be necessary for the protection of the secret.

The Surveyor-General, 14th February 1887, in submitting to the Secretary of State, said the question was, whether the department could afford to run the risk of the secret (for which 110,000l. was being paid) getting out through the possible carelessness of a colonial official.

He remarked that if the Victorian Government were prepared to share the responsibility, that is, to recoup the 110,000l. or a satisfactory part thereof, if the secret were let out through any laches in Victoria, he would not object to their admission into the secret; but that, failing that he thought no more should be done than to write such a letter as Inspector-General had proposed, adding that the secret of the mechanism of the torpedo having been purchased at a high price by Her Majesty’s Government, they did not feel themselves to be in a position to risk the possibility of the secret becoming public property.

Mr. Stanhope minuted as follows, 14th February 1887:-  “I think we may tell them that until experience has shown what precautions may be necessary for the protection of the secret, we cannot undertake to supply the torpedo.  But we may send them privately the details suggested by the Inspector-General of Fortifications.”

A confidential letter was accordingly addressed to the agent-General for Victoria, as follows, 28th February 1887:-


With reference to your letter dated 16th December 1886, requesting, by desire of the Government of Victoria, to be furnished with particulars of the capabilities and powers of the Brennan Torpedo, and with the price at which that Government could be supplied; I am directed by the Secretary of state for War to acquaint you, for the information of the Government of Victoria, that until experience has shown what precautions may be necessary for the protection of the secret, he cannot undertake to supply the torpedo.

I am to add, however, that the general results of the trials recently concluded to show that the torpedo attains a speed of 22 knots an hour for short ranges, of 19 knots for ranges of 1,000 yards, and of 17 knots for ranges of 1,600 yards.

It is well under control of the steering apparatus, and it maintains a constant depth.

The weight of the charge is 200lb. of compressed guncotton.

I have, &c.,
Lothian Nicholson,
I.G.F. &. E.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on April 30, 2014, 18:38:41
A Supplementary Estimate was presented to the House of Commons, 28th February 1887, containing the following item:-

“Vote 15. Rewards, & c., to inventors:
“Instalment of 110,000l., payment to Brennan Torpedo - £30,000”

This was fully discussed in Committee of Supply, 10th March 1887, and agreed to, after a division, by 192 to 77.

H.S. Northcote.

War Office,
17th March 1887.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on April 30, 2014, 19:05:04
I. Special Regulations for the Preservation of secrecy.

1.   The following instructions have been issued to General Officers Commanding:-

“(a.)   The General Officer Commanding will be responsible that proper precautions are taken for guarding the installation.

“(b.)   All Officers, non-commissioned officers and men employed in torpedo installations shall make and sign a declaration of secrecy, on the usual form, before the Commanding Royal Engineer.

“(c.)   Civilian workmen, before being allowed to enter torpedo installations, must make and sign a declaration of secrecy on the usual form.  If found inconvenient for this declaration to be made before the Commanding Royal Engineer, it may be made before the Division Officer, Submarine Mining.  Civilians are not to be allowed to acquire any information respecting the installation or torpedo beyond what is necessary for them to see in connection with their duties.

“(d.)   The declarations will be guarded in the head-quarter officers of the district.

“(e.)   A record of the declaration made by a Warrant Officer, non-commissioned officer or sapper will be made on the back of Army Form B 195 (which forms part of his regimental documents) and in his pocket ledger.  The fact of the declaration having been made will be reported in the Monthly Casualty Returns (Army Form B 76) furnished by Officers commanding units to the Assistant Superintendent, Royal Engineer Records.

“(f.)   In addition, an order shall be issued at each station drawing attention to the Officials Secrets act, 1889, and forbidding all persons employed in connection with this weapon to disclose to authorized persons any particulars they may have gleaned in connection with the weapon itself, the gear, or the installation.

“(g.)   Requisitions, vouchers and ordinary correspondence need not be forwarded confidentially, but correspondence containing matters in any way relating to details of gear or machinery, or to the state of the installations, as well as reports, plans, drawings, &c., should be strictly so dealt with.

“(h.)   All secret and confidential documents relating to the torpedo installation, of the nature of instructions, should be in the charge of the Station Torpedo Officer, who will be responsible for their safe custody.

“(i.)   The Station Torpedo Officer will maintain a complete set of any regulations and instructions concerning the installation and torpedoes.

“(j.)   The Confidential Memorandum, No. 7617/835, dated Horse Guards, S.W., 20th June, 1900, is hereby cancelled.”

2.   There are certain parts of the mechanism of the torpedo which are to be kept secret, even from the Officers who have local charge of the installation, viz.:-

I.   – The depth mechanism.
II.   – The steering mechanism.

3.   These mechanisms are in metal cases, sealed up, and in no case is the seal to be broken.

It will be part of the responsibility of the Station Torpedo Officer to make sure that the seals of the cases containing these mechanisms remain unbroken, making frequent inspection, and recording date and result in a book kept for that purpose.

4.   The depth mechanism is not to be kept in the torpedo.  It is made detachable, and is to be kept in a secure safe, fitted with two different keys, one to be held by the Station Torpedo Officer, and one by the local storekeeper or military mechanist, or, in his absence, the person acting for him, so that the chest or safe can only be opened in the presence of both Officer and storekeeper, or military mechanist.  A duplicate set of keys will be kept by the General Officer Commanding or his Staff Officer of Royal Engineers.

The depth mechanism should always be returned to the safe immediately after use.

5.   The Station Torpedo Officer may temporarily hand over his key to such Officer as may be authorized by the Commanding Royal Engineer to act for him when he is unable to be present personally, and to such Officer only.

6.   Should the Station Torpedo Officer quit the station, he is to formally hand over his key and charge to the Commanding royal Engineer, or to the Station Torpedo Officer duly appointed to replace him, or, if such Officer has not been appointed, to an Officer named by the Commanding Royal Engineer.  This Officer should be one of those trained in Brennan Torpedo work, if available.

A book recording all such transfers must be kept, and the entry of each transfer signed by the Officers effecting it.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: John38 on April 30, 2014, 19:12:58
You can imagine reading this on being posted to the unit.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on April 30, 2014, 20:24:47
It would be a lot of reading before you can actually do anything!  I posted these to show how protective they were over their new secret weapon.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 01, 2014, 09:09:05
II. – Maintenance and General.

7.   An installation must be maintained in a complete state of preparation for action at any time, as soon as steam has been raised.  Any matters which militate against this will be dealt with under paragraph 24, Regulations concerning Brenna Torpedo Installations, issued with Army Orders.

8.   On receipt of a new torpedo, or of any gear which requires fitting or is of such a nature as to render trial desirable, such trial or fitting will take place as soon as possible after receipt.  The Station Torpedo Officer must satisfy himself that the gear is serviceable.

9.   Each torpedo should be completed with all its parts.  All service parts which are not used in practice, except cells, will be fitted to the torpedo to which they belong, even though they may be nominally interchangeable.  All such parts will be marked with the number of the torpedo, but this marking need not be of a permanent nature.  In the case of torpedo drums, the opportunity should be taken, when service wires are replaced, to refit the drums before they are re-wound.

10.   As far as possible every torpedo must be in good and reliable running condition at any time, except when actually undergoing overhaul or repair.  The efficiency of torpedoes can only be maintained and relied on by regular running.  The best method is to take two or three torpedoes into use at a time, running through the lots in rotation at least twice a year.

11.   Each torpedo should be completely dismantled, and internally scraped and painted annually.
The steel will be thoroughly cleaned and all rust removed.  Bath brick and oil may be used for the shell when the torpedo is dismantled, but under no other circumstances.  Even so, the greatest care must be taken that no traces of grit remain inside or out, on joint flanges, door flanges, or any other parts.

12.   While a torpedo is dismantled, all parts, especially those which at other times cannot be easily got at, will be thoroughly cleaned and overhauled.
When a torpedo has had much water in it, it should be dismantled as soon as possible afterwards.

13.   Care must be taken that none of the torpedo gear gets interchanged with that of other torpedoes or spare gear, and that after dismantling, the whole, with the ballast, is replaced precisely as before.
After dismantling and refitting, or any alteration of permanent ballast, &c., a torpedo will be put in the water and tested for buoyancy and trim (see “Ballast,” Part II.).

14.   When putting together again all the steel surfaces in the torpedo will be lightly rubbed over with Vaseline.  All bearing which do not get regular lubrication under ordinary circumstances, e.g., chain pully spindles, rudder bearings, runner axles, depth rudder rod connections, &c., will also be smeared with Vaseline.
Such bearings will always be so treated when the parts are removed, and such as can be got at without dismantling the torpedo, will be occasionally removed for the purpose.

15.   As stated under (11) bath brick will only be used when the torpedo is dismantled.  No such gritty substance will be used ordinarily, nor should there be necessity for its use if due attention is paid.  It is comparatively easy to prevent rust forming, but very difficult to remove it without great labour, or the use of objectionable substances.

16.   After every day’s running the torpedo will be dried and rubbed over with olive oil.  It is advantageous to wash the torpedo down with fresh water first to remove the salt, and this should always be done if the torpedo is to remain any time without being run, and before the mixture mentioned in (17), if used, is applied.

17.   A simple and effective anti-rust composition for iron or steel parts, which It is desired to keep fairly bright, is given below.  It may be found useful for the shells of torpedoes in store, and possibly other parts which require ti be kept free from rust and yet reasonably bright.  Dissolve ½ oz. camphor in 1 lb. lard, take off the scum, and add sufficient black lead to bring the whole to a rather dark grey colour; mix well, and allow to cool.
The mixture should be well rubbed and smeared over the metal surface when the latter is quite dry and clean, and left on for 24 hours.
It should then, on surfaces it is desired to keep bright, be rubbed off with a linen cloth, more or less completely, according to the degree of brightness desired.  How often renewal of the treatment is required will, of course, depend on the amount left on, and on local conditions or atmosphere, &c.

18.   “Globe Polish” may be used on outside gunmetal surfaces which it is desired to keep bright.  It should be well rubbed off again.

19.   In remarks, 20 to 28, which follow, it is convenient to divide the torpedoes at installations into two classes:-

Class (I.)   Torpedoes which at any given time are in use in practice.
Class (II.)   Torpedoes which are in store and not in use at the time.

20.   All torpedoes in Class (II.) will be, as far as possible, kept in such a state as to be ready for running at any moment, if necessary, without any further treatment than the ordinary preparation for running.  As few as possible should be dismantled or under repair at any one time.   
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 01, 2014, 13:35:02
21.   It is advisable that a proportion, at least, of torpedoes in Class (II.) should be kept “wired for mast lamp,” but as experience has shown that the  leads in torpedoes are particularly liable to deterioration and damage, they should be attended to and renewed occasionally.

22.   A torpedo in Class (I.) will naturally be usually in running condition and “wired for lamp.”  It will on no account be transferred to Class (II.) after its period of running, unless it is in good order.  If there is any seriously unsatisfactory feature in its running, it will be retained in Class (I.) until the defect has been ascertained and remedied.
If there is any considerable repair necessary, the above cannot, or course, be carried out absolutely, but the repair will be put in hand as early as possible, and the torpedo run again before transferred permanently to Class (II.)

23.   When a torpedo is transferred to Class (II.) (where it will lie idle for some time), the easily removable gear, such as the pistol, reciprocating pulleys, ring ejector gear, return pulleys, &c., will be taken out, examined, cleaned, lubricated, and replaced.  The corrodible metal surfaces of these parts, and throughout the inside of the torpedo, will be lightly smeared with Vaseline, after the whole of the inside has been dried and cleaned as well as can be done without dismantling.

24.   The sponges at the end of the inner shaft should be renewed.

25.   Any slight defects or damage will be made good.  Any points of importance, special adjustments, & c., noted during the period of running, will be entered in the torpedo history book, so that they may be to hand at once if the torpedo has to be run suddenly.

26.   Torpedoes while in Class (II.) will be given attention occasionally to see that rust is not forming, & c.  If necessary the gear must be taken out for examination, but if the overhaul has been well carried out on transference from Class (I.) to Class (II.), and the parts well dried and smeared with Vaseline, as mentioned in 17, this should not often be requisite.

27.   When a torpedo is taken from class (II.) into Class (I.) for practice, it should be run at first without any special overhaul or preparation other than the usual fitting up for a run of a torpedo already in Class (I.).  This will be a test as to whether the torpedoes in Class (II.) are really ready for running at any moment.
This applies to torpedoes lying in Class (II.) and brought into Class (I.) in ordinary routine.

28.   A torpedo in Class (II.) which has been dismantled, or which has undergone material repairs or alteration, will be run at least once as soon as possible afterwards, and not be left in Class (II.) to take its ordinary turn in rotation, until it has run satisfactorily.
When replaced permanently in Class (II.) it will be treated as described in (23).

29.   Attention must be paid to keeping the parts clean, free from rust, and generally in good condition.
Care must be taken with all watertight joints (see Part II.) so as to prevent, as far as possible, the entrance of water.  When any part is known to have got wet it will be dried and cleaned.
If these precautions are taken, and the above general directions followed, there is no reason why the gear should ever get into bad condition.

30.   Torpedoes will be, as far as possible, protected from grit, sand, and dirt of all kinds.  Grit has often been known to find its way into bearings from the actual waste or cloth used to clean the parts.  Shafts standing out may accumulate grit and take it into the bearings.
Wire drums standing in store, and not cleaned before being put into the torpedo, have caused damage to shaft bearings, owing to the shafts, when passed through the drum, picking up some of the dirt.  There are, in fact, numberless ways in which grit and dirt may find an entrance, and too great attention cannot be paid to this point, especially in places where the air is liable to be laden with dust.

31.   Great care must be exercised in all operations entailing lifting, lowering, and shifting torpedoes.  Unnecessary damage may be caused by careless handling.

32.   Torpedoes have been found to be scored on the under-body, and badly dented near the forward runners.  It cannot be said exactly how this occurs, but it is probably die to irregularities in the levels of trolleys and rails, tipping cradle and slipway rails, & c.  The denting may also be due to carelessly pushing the torpedo forward hard against stops.
It must be seen that all rails are true to gauge and level, and care must always be taken in passing the torpedo from trolley tor ails, in tipping, and running the torpedo up to stops.

33.   Should it ever become necessary for torpedoes to remain long unattended to, as, for instance, during work being done on installations, & c., hey should first be thoroughly overhauled, I possible.  In any case they must b cleaned and dried and the internal steel surfaces coated with Vaseline.
Boxes if quicklime should be placed in two or three places, and the entrance of air prevented by plugging all inlets.  The door grooves should be packed with spurn yarn soaked in white lead (1 part) and Russian tallow (3 parts).
The shell, after being cleaned, will be coated with the same mixture.

34.   The various portions of the installation gear must be kept clean, free from dirt and grit, and well lubricated, as the torpedo gear.
All oil holes and ways must be kept clear, and special attention paid to parts which are in any way hidden.
All pulleys must run free and true.
If any work is done on the installation necessitating the shifting of any gear, every precaution must be taken that all is lined up perfectly truly when replaced.

35.   Misunderstanding may arise owing to the different interpretation placed on the terms “Right” and “Left” when applied to installation gear.  More especially is this so in the case of pulleys, & c., as the wired do not follow, at different installations, the same rule as regards the pulleys over which each wire passes.
Some general rule is therefore necessary, and the following will be adhered to:-

“Right” and “Left” will always be taken to mean the right and left hand respectively of a person facing the incoming wire, i.e., looking in the direction opposite to that in which the wire is moving.
In the case of engine-room gear, this will refer to the wire between the last fairlead pulleys and the reciprocating pulleys on the steering girder.
In the case of the gear in torpedo store, slipway, passages, & c., it will refer to the general direction of the wire as it enters any of these.
Horizontal pulleys will be referred to, if necessary, as “Upper” and “Lower”.
In the case of torpedoes there can be no mistake.  “Right “ and “Left”, as applied to all torpedo gear, means the right and left when standing at the stern and looking towards the bow.

36.   Spare parts, both of torpedoes and installation gear, must be well looked after.  Not being in use they are particularly liable to rust, & c.  Vaseline will be freely used, painted parts scraped and repainted when necessary, and the gear generally kept in thoroughly good condition.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 02, 2014, 09:35:03
37.   The boilers, engines, and auxiliary machinery in an installation, though not part of the special gear, are intimately connected therewith, and their complete efficiency is as essential as that of the torpedo gear itself, and requires equal attention.
Any alteration to machinery, & c., is likely to have some bearing, often not foreseen, on the special points connected with torpedo installations.  Although, therefore, the ordinary machinery is dealt with differently from the special gear, no material alterations should be made, without reference through the proper channels, to ensure the question being considered from the special point of view.

38.   Paragraph 37 above applies to slipways and installation buildings.
In the case of slipways, when renewal is necessary, the curves or angle originally designed should be implicitly adhered to, unless an alteration is authorized.
The necessity for extreme care in the laying of slipway rails cannot be too greatly emphasized.
Accuracy in the curves, gauges, joints, & c., is essential, and any departure from this is likely to have serious results on the launching or torpedoes, and to cause actual damage.
Record drawings should be made of any alteration carried out to installation premises, slipways, & c., or new work.  In the case of slipways, especially, it is essential that these should show, with extreme accuracy, the curvature, & c., of the slipway as it is actually completed.

39.   Attention should be given to the efficient water supply of the installation, both for boiler and condensing purposes.

40.   Where installations are lit be electric light, there should always be a sufficient supply of oil lamps kept ready for use in case of emergency, with the necessary means for fixing or suspending them where required.

Observing Stations and Communications.

41.   There will be, in connection with each installation, one or more Service Directing stations depending on local circumstances, which vary widely.

42.   At some installations, directing cells have been erected at one or more of the selected stations.  In selecting the positions – whether or not cells are to be erected – service conditions alone should be kept in view; some of the more important factors being:-

Field of view (including the early view of approaching vessels); freedom from smoke of guns & c.; command; protection from fire; early view of torpedo; proximity to installation; communication with installation, observers, and superior authority.

43.   Local considerations will probably limit the choice of sites and necessitate a compromise.  The good field of view is essential, and fair proximity to the installation is advantageous, both for supervision and on account of the greater ease of steering when near the lead-in of the wires, except when the command is great.

44.   Although practice considerations should not be allowed to interfere with the selection of service directing stations, and although practice should, as a rule, be carried out from these, it may be advisable to have a junction-box in some other position for certain practice purposes.  A practice junction-box above, or nearly above, the inner end of the slipway, for instance, is often useful for observing the launch and the behaviour of the torpedo.

45.   The details of the “telegraph” gear will vary to suit local conditions.  The commutator provides for the use of four main cables, these may be used in connection with four separate observing stations, or it may be desirable in the case of an exposed position to duplicate the main cable from a directing station.  In any case the cables should be so laid as to ensure, as far as possible, safety from damage of all kinds, especially from shell fire, ad should be so well separated so as to minimise the probability of damage to more than one at the same time.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 02, 2014, 09:39:20
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Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: helcion on May 05, 2014, 08:06:17
A replica Brennan Torpedo exists in Hongkong, one of the locations where they were deployed.

I receive 'MAASMOND' a daily maritime newsletter which although Dutch-based has worldwide coverage.
The editor is currently in Hongkong & posted this item yesterday which may be of interest to KHF members & is reproduced with permission.

The Brennan Torpedo station at Lei Yue Mun was built between 1892 and 1894. It was hewn out of the rock of the headland. It was the last to be constructed either in Britain or her overseas possessions.

The casemates inside the Redoubt were converted into exhibition galleries for permanent displays on the history of Hong Kong's Coastal Defence covering the Ming and Qing period, the British period, the Japanese invasion and the period after the resumption of Chinese sovereignty over Hong Kong occupation.

The Hong Kong Museum of Coastal Defence is only museum in the world which is having a “worked open” replica of the Brennan Torpedo on display.

 The Brennan torpedo was a torpedo patented by Irish-born Australian inventor Louis Brennan in 1877.
It was powered by two contra-rotating propellors that were spun by rapidly pulling out wires from drums wound inside the torpedo. Differential speed on the wires connected to the shore station allowed the torpedo to be guided to its target, up to 2,000 yards (1,800 m) away, at speeds of up to 27 knots (31 mph).

The Brennan torpedo is often claimed as the world's first guided missile, but guided torpedoes invented by John Ericsson, John Louis Lay, and Victor von Scheliha all predate it; however, Brennan's torpedo was much simpler in its concept and worked over an acceptable range at a satisfactory speed so it might be more accurate to call it "the world's first practical guided missile".

 The Brennan torpedo was similar in appearance to more modern ones, apart from being having a flattened oval cross-section instead of a circular one. It was designed to run at a consistent depth of 12 feet (3.7 m), and was fitted with an indicator mast that just broke the surface of the water; at night the mast had a small light fitted which was only visible from the rear.
Two steel drums were  mounted one behind the other inside the torpedo, each carrying several thousands yards of high-tensile steel wire. The drums were connected via a differential gear to twin contra-rotating propellers.
 If one drum was rotated faster than the other, then the rudder was activated. The other ends of the wires were connected to steam-powered winding engines, which were arranged so that speeds could be varied within fine limits, giving sensitive steering control for the torpedo. 

The torpedo attained a speed of 20 knots (23 mph) using a wire .04 inches (1.0 mm) in diameter but later this was changed to .07 inches (1.8 mm) to increase the speed to 27 knots (31 mph).
 The torpedo was fitted with elevators controlled by a depth-keeping mechanism, and the fore and aft rudders operated by the differential between the drums.
 In operation, the torpedo's operator would be positioned on a 40 feet (12 m) high telescopic steel tower, which could be extended hydraulically. He was provided with a special pair of binoculars on which were mounted controls which could be used to electrically control the relative speeds of the twin winding engines.
In this way he was able to follow the track of the torpedo and steer it with a great degree of accuracy.
In tests carried out by the Admiralty the operator was able to hit a floating object at 2,000 yards (1,800 m) and was able to turn the torpedo through 180 degrees to hit a target from the off side.   

According to Brennan's biographer, Norman Tomlinson, Brennan was inspired to create his torpedo's unique propulsion system in 1874, when he noticed that a cotton reel, if the thread is pulled toward the operator from underneath, moves forward rather than backward.
 He also realized that the only device which needed propulsion for a limited distance and which did not have to make a return journey, was a torpedo.
 Brennan began making rough sketches of such a torpedo, and as the concept developed he sought the mathematical assistance of William Charles Kernot, a lecturer at Melbourne University.

After earlier experiments with a single propeller, by 1878 Brennan had produced a working version about 15 feet (4.6 m) long, made from iron boiler plate, with twin contra-rotating propellers.
 Tests carried out in the Graving Dock at Williamstown, Victoria were successful, with steering proving to be reasonably controllable, although depth-keeping was not.

The British Admiralty had meanwhile instructed Rear Admiral J. Wilson, the Commodore of the Royal Navy's Australian Squadron, to investigate the weapon and report back.

Alexander Kennedy Smith was also working to obtain the Victoria government's backing for the project and raised the subject in the state's legislature on 2 October 1877.
A  grant was eventually awarded for the development of the torpedo, and in March 1879 it was successfully tested in Hobsons Bay, Melbourne.

Brennan had by now established the Brennan Torpedo Company, and had assigned half of the rights on his patent to civil engineer John Ridley Temperley, in exchange for much-needed funds.
Brennan and Temperley soon afterwards travelled to Britain, where the Admiralty examined the torpedo and found it unsuitable for shipboard use.

However, the War Office proved more amenable, and in early August 1881 a special Royal Engineer committee was instructed to inspect the torpedo at Chatham and report back directly to the Secretary of State for War, Hugh Childers.
 The report strongly recommended that an improved model be built at government expense.
 At the time the Royal Engineers - part of the Army - were responsible for Britain's shore defenses, while the Royal Navy were responsible for its seaward protection.

In 1883 an agreement was reached between the Brennan Torpedo Company and the government.
The newly appointed Inspector-General of Fortifications in England, Sir Andrew Clarke, appreciated the value of the torpedo and in spring 1883 an experimental station was established at Garrison Point Fort, Sheerness on the River Medway and a workshop for Brennan was set up at the Chatham Barracks, the home of the Royal Engineers.
Between 1883 and 1885 the Royal Engineers held trials and in 1886 the torpedo was recommended for adoption as a harbour defence torpedo.

In 1884 Brennan received a letter from the War Office stating that they had decided to adopt his torpedo for harbour defence and he was invited to attend a meeting to decide the value of his invention.
Brennan decided to accept £40,000 as a quick answer to his financial worries but his business partner J.R. Temperley assumed control of the negotiations and demanded £100,000.

The War Office agreed to this, but said that it would have to be paid out over a period of three years. Brennan accepted this, but Temperley demanded a further £10,000 for the delay, and after some argument the War Office agreed, also agreeing to pay Brennan a sizable salary to act as production chief.
A scandal eventually blew up over this sum, which was wildly extravagant in comparison to the £15,000 paid for manufacturing rights to the Whitehead torpedo only 15 years previous.

The Brennan torpedo became a standard harbour defence throughout the British Empire and was in use for more than fifteen years.
Operational stations were established in the UK at Cliffe Fort, Fort Albert on the Isle of Wight and Plymouth. Other stations included Fort Camden in Cork, Ireland, Lei Yue Mun Fort in Hong Kong and Forts

Ricasoli & Tigne in Malta In 1905 the Committee on Armaments of Home Ports issued a report in which they recommended the removal of all Brennan torpedoes from fixed defences due to their comparatively short range and the difficulty of launching them at night.
Manufacture of the Brennan torpedo finished in 1906.
 The only remaining original Brennan Torpedo is exhibited at the Royal Engineers Museum in Chatham, Kent.
 However, traces of the installation at Fort Camden in County Cork are visible to this day. And as mentioned above also at Lei Yue Mun Fort in Hong Kong on display is a replica Brennan Torpedo with the side cut away so the workings are visible.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Signals99 on May 05, 2014, 10:31:49
Just a point of interest,
As stated by me elsewhere on the forum, when RNAD Lodge hill closed, they had a small museum in Upnor castle, among the artefacts held there was, I think, a Brennan torpedo plus the shell of a Whitehead weapon. Both marked for disposal, anyone know their eventual fate?
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 05, 2014, 14:38:59
Thank you for adding the additional information helcion.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 06, 2014, 15:41:15
46.   Where directing cells exist, the junction-boxes should be in the cell, otherwise they should be erected conveniently near the actual directing station in such positions as to be protected as far as possible from damage, either in peace time or from fire in action.
They should be adequately protected from weather.

47.   Flexible six-core cable should, as far as possible, be used in preference to single core leads for all circuits in the engine room.  This should be properly fixed to the walls or carried overhead, and should never pass under the floor or unnecessarily close to steam pipes.

48.   All connections not necessitating moveable terminals will be made permanent and soldered.

49.   The spare set of dials should be fixed in such a position on the wall of the engine room that they can be seen and used in an emergency.

50.   A junction-box should be provided so that the dials can be tested on the engine room without using the main cables.

51.   Diagram I. shows a typical arrangement of the lads, &c., in the ending room.

52.   Great care must be taken, in the case of the stress regulator and clock leads, that they are quite clear of all moving parts, both when the gear is stationary and also during running.  Cases have occurred where the leads, though clear of the moving parts of the dynamometer, have been damaged by the wire itself owing to this point being overlooked.  As little of the lead as possible will be left slack.

53.   There should be speaking communicating between the directing stations and the installation quite apart from the receivers used in connection with the telegraph apparatus, which are intended to be retained merely as “buzzers” for answering orders, though they can also be used – somewhat inefficiently – for speaking, if necessary.
Loud-speaking telephones will probably be most generally suitable, though voice tubes may be preferred in some positions.
Telephonic communication may also be desirable between advanced observation posts and the directing stations and installation, but this will depend on local conditions.

III. – Practice.

54.   Practice will be carried out as laid down generally in Instructions concerning Brennan Torpedo Installations issued with Army Orders.
Many of the following directions and hints apply equally to service and practice running – it will be clear where this is or is not the case.

55.   It is essential for efficiency that practice should take place under the various conditions which may exist in time of war.  At the same time every possible precaution should be taken to minimise liability of danger to torpedo, vessels, or individuals.
Some of these precautions would be as follows:-

(1.)   Get as clear a course as possible before starting.
(2.)   Avoid practising in thick weather or fog, or when it is so rough that it would be dangerous to make fast the torpedoes preparatory to towing them back to the installation, or to land torpedoes.
(3.)   Avoid practising at a time when darkness is coming on rapidly, except when prepared for night running.
(4.)   Avoid unnecessarily steering the torpedoes near vessels, rocks, banks, shoal water, or channel buoys.
(5.)   Practice at night only under very favourable conditions of atmosphere and weather.
(6.)   Always have a good steamer ready to toe the torpedoes back, and to not depend entirely on row boats for this purpose.
(7.)   The utmost care must be taken to avoid fouling any vessels or other craft with the wires when the torpedo is running; there is great danger to life and limb if the wires come in contact with any person.
(8.)   When there is hidden water near, whence vessels might appear unexpectedly, the Directing Officer should satisfy himself that the coast is clear before starting.  If necessary, he should station observers to prevent boats or individuals approaching the wires during a run.
(9.)   There should always, if possible, be a dinghy near at hand, that can be rapidly manned in case of a mishap, on, or shortly after, launching.  The torpedo is then in its worst condition as regards buoyancy, and is also liable to be carried ashore and damaged.
(10.)   There should always be a good signaller with the Directing Officer, and on the picking-up boat.
(11.)   Definite orders should be issued to the detached against unnecessarily approaching the wires when the stress is on.  A broken wire may inflict most serious injury.  Almost the only occasion on which it would appear to be necessary for men to be within range of the wire, under ordinary practice conditions, is when getting another torpedo in position in “quick running,” but this should rake very little time if all is ready beforehand.
It should be seen that the guards in the engine-room are efficient, and invariably used when running.

56.   The area of water available in time of action in view of surface mines, obstructions, &c., must be taken into consideration.  The effect of different conditions of tide weather , “and the man torpedo speed that may be expected for the various classes of shot,” will be noted.  The distances of any fixed points within range of the torpedo should be known, as also of any more distant ones which might indicate the range or speed of approaching vessels.
If fixed directing stations or positions exist, directing will frequently be carried out from them in practice.

57.   Frequent practice at a moving target is essential, as everything depends on the judgement and accuracy of the Directing Officer.  The fastest vessels obtainable should be used for towing the target.  The course followed by the towing vessel should be frequently varied, so that practice in every class of show may be obtained.

58.   When practice is carried out at a moving target:-

(1.)   The tow-lines should be of lengths not less than those specified below:-
For ranges up to 1,000 yards, a 50 yards to-line.
For ranges between 1,000 and 2,000 yards, a 100 yard tow-line.

Orders to this effect should be hung upon a boar, in a  suitable place on all vessels employed on torpedo towing.

(2.)   The target itself should be aimed at, and no attempt should be made to steer the torpedo between the target and the towing vessel.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 07, 2014, 14:32:14
59.   The torpedo will never be directed at a launch, notwithstanding the fact that the depth may have been regulated to ensure the torpedo passing under the keel.

60.   Hitting a tow line or target is liable to damage the mast, and a badly damaged mast may have serious results.  After hitting a tow-line or target, therefore, or any other obstacle, the torpedo should be most carefully watched, and if any tendency to dive is noticed either when running straight, or on steering, the run should be considered over, the torpedo stopped, and the wires pulled out slowly.
The target tow lines will be no stouter than necessary.  Unnecessarily heavy lines will bend a mast almost with certainty, and these appear to have been customary at some stations.

61.   Running torpedoes in quick succession will be practised.  Lengths of wire which have become too short for ordinary practice, and can be actually cut and cleared, as would be the case in action, should be used for this purpose.  Useful practice can also be obtained after a long run by stopping the engine just before the tail ends of the wires come in, then cutting and clearing and connecting up the next torpedo.
It may not always be necessary to launch the last torpedo if every operation up to that point is carried out.  The time from “wires off” till the next torpedo is ready and should be noted.
N.B. – The actual fitting up of torpedoes should never be hastily carried out.  There should never be an occasion when it is necessary to fit up a torpedo in a hurry.

62.   In “Quick Running,” care must be taken that the wires of the first torpedo are well clear of the slipway under whatever conditions of tide and sea may exist.  The ends should be retained and pulled in as soon as possible afterwards.

63.   To prevent subsequent delay under quick-running conditions, practice or service, the man at the steering wheel must immediately bring the rim pointer of the steering dial to zero, when the order “Stop” followed immediately by “Connect Up” is received.  (See also under “Directing Orders,” para. 81, and “Engine Driving,” para. 103).
In a run where the wires are wound in, the steering dial will be brought central while the ends are coming in.

64.   It should be seen, as far as possible, that the slipway is clear for a sufficient distance below the water level.

65.   The D.M. should be set for the torpedo to take its depth on entering the water, unless some condition of depth of water, &c., at the time of running renders it dangerous.

66.   The setting, cocking, and safety arrangements of the pistol, and fitting of the primer tube (dummy) must be as carefully carried out in practice as would be the case under service conditions.  Care must be taken that a loaded primer tube is never used in practice.

67.   There should be some preconcerted signal on the buzzer by which the engine driver may inform the Directing Officer that he wishes to communicate on the telephone.  If there is independent communication this want is of course already supplied.

68.   Stopping during a run, if ever done in action, would be of such extremely rare occurrence that it can scarcely be considered a service operation.  There must always be some liability to break a wire on restarting, owing to fouling of the wire when slack, or to “fuzzing” or kinking at the torpedo.  Moreover, there may sometimes be difficulty in the torpedo taking its depth again.
The torpedo should, therefore, never be stopped in practice except from considerations of safety to torpedo, gear, vessels, or individuals, &c., or for some other very special reason.

69.   The liability to break a wire on restarting is increased by the suddenness of stopping.
Where there is no need to stop very quickly, it is advisable to slow down first.
In any case the engine brake should not be used in stopping except in case off a wire breaking, or an accident or danger in the engine room, or when the “Stop” order is followed immediately by “Connect Up.”  (See “Directing Orders,” paragraph 81, and “Engine Driving,” paragraph 103).
Conditions under which the extremely slight additional travel of the torpedo, owing to the non-use of the engine brake, would be material, are scarcely conceivable, and should certainly never be allowed to arise.
On the other hand, the slight extra stress kept on the wires while the drums are still revolving may just prevent the wire becoming foul at the torpedo, and this would be of extreme importance if the necessity of stopping were ever to arise in a service run.

70.   In practice running, torpedoes will be fitted up in every particular as for service, with the following exceptions:-
Practice masts will be used, and, for day running, lamps and electrical connections need not be fitted.
Practice wires and drums will be used, except on the first occasion of a service wire being converted to practice.
Practice cells will be used for night running.
The necessary ballast compensations will be made.
Dummy primer tubes will be fitted.
Phosphide of calcium will always be used, both by day and night.  (The tin of phosphide will be omitted in service running.)

71.   The D.M. Hood will invariably be used in all runs.

72.   Every endeavour will be made to trace any defect which may become apparent in running.  It is far more difficult to trace the cause if any time is allowed to elapse.  As a rule, therefore, when any defect or peculiarity is noticed, it will be followed up at once, the succeeding runs being made with this object, until the defect is traced, and, if possible, remedied.

73.   ll the personnel connected with the installation must be practiced in the duties they would have to perform in time of war.

74.   With this object in view it is advisable that each man should be allotted definite duties, and he should be normally employed on these duties, more especially during “quick running” practices and “defence” practices.
Each man should also, however, be trained in all the duties.

75.   The drill and individual duties of the trained Brennan workers will vary somewhat at different installations.  The following is given as a guide:-

Military mechanist. – Superintending and checking the operations.
No.1 – At observing post with Directing Officer.
No.2 – Torpedo Store.  Places No.2 torpedo on slipway as soon as No.1 has started; pulls in travelling carriage after run and cuts the wires, taking care that they clear the slipway; passes right wire of No.2 torpedo over fairleads and dynamometer pulley and through right groove of winding drum.
No.3 – Torpedo Store.  Assists No 2 in placing No 2 torpedo on the slipway and in pulling the travelling carriage; passes left wire over fairleads and pulleys; lifts driving wheel of travelling carriage into position, passes wire through left groove of winding drum, and makes fast both wires.
No.4 – Operates steering wheel during run; fastens end of right wire and removes full drum from shaft.
No. 5 – Fastens end of left wire, places empty drum on shaft, and sets spreader.
The remainder as most convenient, according to the peculiarities of the installation.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 08, 2014, 10:15:31
Directing Orders

76.   A trial of the telegraph apparatus will be made before each practice run (except when, as in “quick running,” time may not allow) by bringing the pointers of the dials to points which have been prearranged.
With the dials arranged as in paragraph 51 a fault in the circuit and with great probability be rapidly discovered and adjusted.
Each station has now two sending instruments, and duplicate long and short lengths of flexible cable, and by means of the commutator the main cable to the engine room can be quickly changed and the spare set of dials taken into use.
By changing parts of the circuit in succession, the fault can be localized unless it is due to defects in two portions.

77.   It will be an invariable rule to press each pair of buttons, in turn, just before giving the “Are You Ready” order for a run, in order to ensure both dial pointers being central to start with.
This is of such importance that it is advisable to make a habit of bringing the pointer central, by pressing both buttons together, immediately before any order, where there is a possibility of error or forgetfulness as to the last order given, especially, for instance, before each order on the Engine Dial up to the launching order, as considerable time may elapse between the orders.

78.   The actual duties on the receipt of orders in the Engine Room may vary in detail according to local circumstances, but whatever special local rules are made, must be adhered to implicitly, and the general rules given below and under 79 must be followed in principle.
The non-commissioned officer in charge is the person responsible for “accepting” all preparatory orders (i.e., up to and including “Stand By”). Although for convenience the engine driver presses the button in answer, he will only do so by order of the non-commissioned officer in charge.
Having “accepted” the “Stand By” order, the non-commissioned officer takes post, and the subsequent running orders are “accepted” by the engine driver, who is then responsible for compliance.

79.   There must be complete understanding as to the meaning of each order, and of the “acceptance” of each order.
“Connect up.” – The reasons for the introduction of this order will be given later (81).  In ordinary practice running it may, or may not, be given on the dial according to circumstances.
Whenever given, however, it means that the next torpedo to be run is to be connected up as rapidly as possible.
The “acceptance” of this order by the non-commissioned officer means simply that the order has been received and will be carried out.
“Are You Ready.” – On receipt of this order, the non-commissioned officer will see that the whole of the preparatory work is complete, and the torpedo and gear in condition for launching to take place at any moment; that each man concerned is ready, and standing or sitting “at ease” near his running station.
The “acceptance” of the order means that the non-commissioned officer has carried out the order and satisfied himself on the above points.
“Stand By.” – Each man will stand to his work, absolutely ready to comply with the launching order without a moment’s further hesitation or delay.  The man at the steering wheel must be actually holding it to keep it amidships.
The “acceptance” of “Stand By” means that the non-commissioned officer has actually seen the above to be the case, and is himself taking his post, whatever it may be.

80.   There must be no excuse for delay, or hesitation, in compliance with the launching order after “Stand By” has been “accepted.”
On the other hand, it is extremely inadvisable to give “Stand By” any considerable time before it is intended to launch, as it is a strain on the men, and leads to their attention becoming relaxed.
“Stand By” will usually be given only sufficiently before it is intended to launch to allow ample time for the men (who are already complying with “Are You Ready”) to come to their “Stand By“ position, and for the non-commissioned officer to see that they have done so, and to “accept” the order.
This should actually only take a few seconds, but, or course, circumstances may render it necessary to prolong the time during which the men are kept to attention.
Should the Directing Officer decide to postpone the launch for any time, he should come back to “Are You Ready.”
Similarly, if he further postpones it sufficiently to render it undesirable to keep the men at the stations, he should come to “Stop.”
In fact, strict compliance with “Are You Ready,”  and “Stand By,” must be insisted on, but these orders should not be left on when strict compliance is not necessary.

81.   The reasons for the introduction of, and the complete meaning of, the order “Connect Up” are as under:- Under service conditions, if, after a successful or unsuccessful shot, there is no chance of a second shot within a short time, it would always be advisable to wind in the wires as being by far the most efficient way of clearing them.  This will, therefore, be the rule unless a further order is received.
If, however, there is a possibility of a second shot within a short time – and in practice “Quick Running” – the order “Stop” will be sent down, immediately followed by “Connect Up.”
This will mean that the engine driver will stop the engines as rapidly as possible, consistently with allowing the man at the steering wheel to bring his pointer central (see Engine “Driving, paragraph 103),” that the wires will be cut and cleared, and the next torpedo connected up as rapidly as possible.
In ordinary practice the “Connect Up” order can be used or not as desired.  It is understood to be found a convenience at some installations.

82.   It may become necessary to stop the engines at any moment, even when only winding in wire after an ordinary practice run.  The order “Stop” should, therefore, never be given when the engines are moving, unless it is actually desired to stop them.  It follows that when wires are wound in after a run, “Stop” should not be given until the ends are in.

83.   When the order “Stop” is given, it will be repeated until accepted from the engine room.

84.   The Directing Officer will invariably give the orders “Zero” on the Steering Dial the moment the wires are off in an ordinary practice run, or, in “Quick Running,” and under service conditions, the moment the run is ended, whether that be by stopping the torpedo, or by a successful shot.

85.   It is a matter for decision according to local circumstances whether the “Half Speed” order is used for launching, and the launching speed adhered to until the order “Full Speed” is sent down by the Directing Officer, or whether “Full Speed” is used for the launching order, and the engine driver instructed to give full speed as soon as the carriage is out.
The latter course is preferable when there are no special reasons to the contrary.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 08, 2014, 13:38:28

86.   The sooner the Directing Officer is able to see the torpedo after the launch, the better.  He should in any case, as far as possible, avoid giving a steering order until the torpedo is in his view.  It may not, of course, always be practicable to follow this implicitly.

87.   Diving on steering is usually worst at the commencement of a run and may be intensified if the torpedo has not settled down after its first dive or heel on launching.  It is not, therefore, advisable to steer just as the torpedo enters the water, but if it is necessary the helm should be put on as gradually as possible.  This must depend considerably, however, on local considerations, and the conditions of the particular run.

88.   If a torpedo dives badly on steering, so that the mast disappears, it is advisable, if the circumstances permit, to slow down the engines and ease the helm.  It is not worth while running unnecessary risks in practice.

89.   In the class of shot most generally practiced – a vessel approaching to run past installation – the error is frequently made of waiting too long, so that the target is met when opposite, or even past, the slipway, the installation then being open to fire.  The object should usually be to get the first shot in as early as possible, while the installation is still under cover, and so as to give all the time possible for a second shot.
Late and following shots, and all classes likely to occur in action will, however, be practiced.

90.   Heavy steering should very rarely be necessary, and should never be unnecessarily employed.  The better the judgement of the shot the less steering is required.  The object should be to get the torpedo running on a direct line to cut off the target, and slight corrections one way or the other should usually suffice.

91.   It is very difficult to judge the true course of a torpedo running in a curve at any distance unless with very high command.  It is still more difficult to judge the helm required, and the effect of helm given, when there is considerable bight of wire in the water.  It should be borne in mind that a torpedo, with rudders amidships, tends to run in prolongation of the line of the wires from its stern at any moment.  When running in a curve, therefore, the lead of the wires must always be borne in mind, as on that depends to a great extent the immediate effect of the helm on the torpedo.
There is no doubt that this has not infrequently led to the impression that the torpedo is sluggish in answering the helm, especially when the bight in the wire is straightened, as the torpedo is then constantly tending to change its course, and to move more and more round in one direction as the lead of the wire alters.  Large bights in the wire should, therefore, be avoided as far as possible.
Though, as stated above, heavy steering should be seldom required, and extreme steering so rarely as to be practically limited to cases of emergency, some classes of shots may be likely to occur (and should, therefore, be practiced), which may necessitate bringing the torpedo round to a considerable extent.  The object should always be to effect this with the minimum amount of steering and bight in the wire.  The steering should, if possible, be put on gradually, two or three at a time, and then a short interval, and so on.
This is particularly important in the case of a torpedo which is seen to vary its depth badly on steering.  In this case care should also be taken not to reverse the steering suddenly, as this is particularly liable to make a torpedo, which is already diving on being steered in one direction, come to the surface when the steering is reversed.
It should always be remembered that heavy steering, suddenly put on, intensifies many possible sources of trouble, and must necessarily cause severe stresses on various parts.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 14, 2014, 11:08:50

92.   A system of rules and signals for the picking up vessels (and the towing vessel if a second vessel is used in target practice) will be arranged and adhered to.  The following are given as a guide:-

(1.)   The vessel, when in position, will hoist a flag to show that she is ready for the run.
(2.)   When all is ready for launching on shore, and the coast is clear, a flag will be hoisted near the directing point.
(3.)   This will be the signal, if a target is used, for the towing vessel to steam on the course ordered.  The directing point flag will remain up if the torpedo is launched, but will be lowered if, for some reason, the launch does not take place.
(4.)   The towing vessel will strictly follow her instructions as to course, both before and after the torpedo has passed.  These instructions should, as far as possible, be such that if the towing vessel picks up, she should be somewhere near the torpedo at the end of the run.
(5.)   At the end of the run the flag at the steering point will be lowered, and the picking-up vessel will lower her flag and pick up the torpedo.
(6.)   If the word “Cut” is signalled and the flag at the directing point lowered, the vessel will lower her flag, approach the torpedo, and cut the wires.
(7.)   The vessel will on no account approach the torpedo while either her own of the directing-point flag is flying; subject, however, to the proviso that, if the torpedo is not moving, and is seen by the vessel to be in a sinking condition or dangerous position, she will steam towards the torpedo, calling the attention of the directing point by continuously raising and lowering her flag, whistling, or any other means in her power.  Even under these circumstances, however, she should not go alongside the torpedo until both flags are lowered.
(8.)   At night an easily distinguishable light should be used instead of the flag at the directing point.  It is advisable that the vessel should carry the recognized towing lights when towing the target, and some special light (such as a flare) should be arranged for the signals under (1) and (5) which cannot be mistaken for Board of trade or local recognized signals.

The foregoing may not be applicable to the circumstances of Defence Practice, for which special rules should be made to meet the case.

Picking Up.

93.   As far as possible the run should end near the picking-up boat, not only in case pf the torpedo being in a dangerous condition or position when the wires are off, but also so that there should not be necessary delay in getting the torpedo out of the water.  A torpedo is always liable to take in some water when lying on the surface, owing to there being no pressure on the door rubbers and no wires through the sponge bush.
The following stores, in addition to signalling gear &c., for day or night work, will be on board the picking-up boar, and always be kept ready for instant use:-

Towing line.
Pole, 10 or 12 feet long, painted at one end.
A second towing line in rough weather.
One cork buoy, attached to a sinker by a light line of sufficient length, according to the greatest depth of water on the vicinity and the strength of the tide.
One similar line attached to a buoy, but without the sinker.

The following has been found a good method of picking up the torpedo:-

An eye is formed in one end of the towing line, through which the other end is rove, forming a loop.  The pointed end of the pole is put into the eye, thus jamming the line in the eye.  A man takes both pole and line, keeping a slight strain on the line, and drops the loop over the nose of the torpedo; then, by pulling both pole and line together, withdraws the pole ad tightens the loop.  The launch should just keep steerage way on, and should approach the bow of the torpedo, as otherwise the loop is liable to get over one hook of the nose only.
In the event of the torpedo being waterlogged or drawn under by the tide after stopping, the picking-up vessel should use every endeavour to make fast and free end of the buoyed line to any part of the torpedo, mast, stays, &c., the torpedo may thus possibly be prevented from sinking; if not, the buoy shows its exact position.
If this cannot be done, the sinker, with line and buoy attached, should be dropped as near as possible where the torpedo disappeared.
In towing the torpedo it is convenient to pass the towing line over a notched spar projected from the stern of the vessel, and to haul up the torpedo fairly close to this, so as to prevent the chance of overrunning and damage.
On the launch nearing the landing point, the torpedo can be handed over to men in a dinghy.
Torpedoes are often unnecessarily damaged in picking up and landing.  The necessity for great care must be impressed on those engaged in the operations.

Night Running.

94.   The usual precautions taken in practice must be particularly strictly carried out in night running.
The lamp connections will be carefully tested.
If the lamp goes out or becomes invisible and the torpedo cannot be otherwise clearly seen, the torpedo will be stopped.
A signal will be arranged for the engine driver to give notice to the Directing Officer, by means of the buzzer or bell, as the case may be, that the wires are off, as the Officer can only know that the light has disappeared and does not know the reason.
Any points of interest that arise should be noted and reported.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 17, 2014, 19:30:05
Engine Driving.

95.   Before dealing with the method of engine driving, two portions of the machinery of the engine room require short notice, viz., the condenser and the reducing valve.

Condenser. – When running torpedoes the condenser has two functions:-

(1.)   To prevent the consequences of exhausting into the atmosphere, viz., showing up the position of the installation and the moment of launching, and possibly inconvenience and obscuring of view.
(2.)   To economise steam.

(1.)   Was the primary object for which condensers were originally provided, and calls for not particular remark.
(2.)   Is of greater importance than formerly on account of the greater power required.

96.   There are two patterns of condenser in use at torpedo installations:-
(1.)   The ejector condenser.
(2.)   Surface condenser.
Ejector condensers are being gradually replaced by surface condensers.

97.   The manipulation of the condenser will vary somewhat with the local arrangement.  The best means will be adopted to avoid any sudden variation in the vacuum; a steady rise or fall with which the automatic stress regulator can deal is of no importance.

98.   With the ejector condenser it will be part of one man’s regular drill to attend to the condenser during running.  He will turn on the condensing water the instant the order to launch is received in the engine room, and will, if necessary, regulate the supply during the run, so as to keep the best and steadiest possible vacuum.
He will be ready to shut it off sharp on a wire breaking or the engine being stopped at any time, and to start it again on the order to go ahead being received.  At the end of a run he will shut off as the wires are being wound in.

99.   With the surface condenser it will probably be found best to keep the water circulating when there is any probability of a torpedo being launched.  The rate of pumping must probably be increased when the torpedo is actually launched; in this case steps should be taken to obtain constant results by always opening the throttle valve of the pump to the same extent.

100.   Reducing valve. – It is only necessary here to refer to the setting.  At each station the setting required to give the running stress at the commencement of the run, and the adjustments of the special contact-breaker which give that setting, should be found and noted.
These adjustments should be known for running with and without the condenser, as considerably less steam pressure is required in the former case.
In any cases of uncertainty, it is always preferable that the initial setting should be slightly low rather than high, as wires may thereby be saved, and the stress regulator will soon give the desired stress.

101.   The method of engine driving has been much simplified by the introduction of the automatic stress regulator, but a few points call for notice.

Launching. – A tachometer should be used for driving at the start, and it should be seen that it is reliable and that the belt driving it does not become slack.  The revolutions which give the vest launching speed should be found for each installation and adhered to.  A high speed is usually best as regards diving of the torpedo, but this speed has to be limited on account of the danger to the wire from the sudden stress on the propellers striking the water.
The engine driver must be instructed to adhere strictly to the revolutions determined on for starting.  Care will be taken that he does not make the mistake of starting the torpedo when the engines are at the correct revolutions, and then allowing them to accelerate while the torpedo is running down the slipway.

102.   When running on the surface is necessary, the number of revolutions to drive at while the torpedo is on the surface after the carriage is out should be found by trial and adhered to until the order “Full Speed” is received.  This surface speed should be such that the torpedo takes its depth with certainty, and not high enough to cause undue rises of stress on the wire.  It may be found possible, and in that case most convenient, to fix the same number of revolutions for running on the surface as the starting speed.

103.   Full speed. – When full speed is put on, the engine driver will open the throttle to the full extent at once and leave it there.  Under ordinary circumstances he should not interfere with the lever again until the end of the run.  He will, however, remain sharply on the look-out for further orders on the dial or for a wire breaking.  Should the latter happen, he will stop as quickly as possible, using the break.
Should he get the order, “Stop,” on the dial, he will at once shut off steam, but not use the brake.
Should, however, the order “Stop2 be followed immediately by the order “Connect Up,” the engine driver will at once slow down, but will keep the engines moving until the man at the steering wheel has brought the steering pulleys central.  He will then stop as quickly as possible.

104.   Though the stress regulator renders the dynamometer scale and pointers unnecessary for ordinary purposes, they are left on for driving at half speed, and also as a stand-by, to enable a run to be safely completed even in the event of the stress regulator being out of action.

105.   The engine driver will glance at the pointer from time to time, and if he notices an abnormal rise of stress maintained to a dangerous extent, showing that the stress regulator is not working, he can take charge with the throttle.  He must then drive with the lever for the remainder of the run.
It is desirable that engine drivers should very occasionally drive during a run without the stress regulator, in order that they may be trained to meet this emergency.

106.   Half speed. – Irrespective of running on the surface at the start, &c., it may become necessary, under special circumstances, to run for a short time at half speed in the course of a run.
In that case the engine driver will take charge and drive by the stress.
He will adhere strictly to the stress fixed on for half speed, which will be a safe margin below the stress at which the main contact maker is adjusted to bring the stress regulator in and out of action.  This stress should be clearly marked on the dynamometer scale.
On “Full speed” being given after running at half speed, he will at once throw the throttle wide open, as when giving full speed at the start.

107.   Winding in. – When the tail ends of the wire are wound in, as in an ordinary practice run, they are less likely to become damaged if wound in at a high speed.
The engines should, therefore, be allowed to run at full speed when the wires are off.  A mark should be made on the diagram, before the run, to indicate the ends of the wires.  As this mark is approached, the engines should be slowed down and the ends brought in dead slow.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 20, 2014, 18:51:30
IV. – Supply, Repair and Care of Torpedo Stores.

Demand and Supply.

108.   Instructions for the demand, supply and accounting for stores are contained in Section XVIII., Engineer Services.

109.   The following extracts are reproduced for convenience of reference:-

Paragraph 961A. – Annual Estimates, in duplicate, on army Form G 895A for special stores connected with the Brennan Torpedo, will be forwarded to the Inspector-General of Fortifications by the 1st September in each year.  If the estimate for any item is exceptional, either in quantity (being materially in excess of the “average annual issues”) or in the nature of the article estimated for, explanation should be given on the estimate form, or in a separate letter if necessary.

Paragraph 961B – Requisitions for such special stores as are supplied by the Brennan Torpedo Factory, to complete establishments, will be sent direct to the Superintendent of that Factory.  The requisitions should be on Army Form G 997, singly if in copying ink, otherwise in duplicate.  The first six columns and the column of remarks will always be filled in.
Urgent requisitions, of urgent items on a requisition, should be so marked in red ink.  Requisitions will be made as soon as possible after the 1st April in any year (of before if the necessity arises), but may continue to be sent in at any time throughout the year as may be necessary.  Frequent small demands will, however, be avoided as far as possible.  The requisitions should invariably show whether the stores were approved in the annual estimates, or of any other stores materially in excess of such estimate, the requisitions will be submitted to the Inspector-General of Fortifications with an explanatory report.
Paragraph 1002A. – A list of such special stores as are supplied by the Brennan Torpedo Factory which have become obsolete, worn out or unserviceable, will be furnished from each Brennan Torpedo Installation, annually in April, to the Superintendent of that Factory, who will communicate instructions as to the disposal of the stores on the list.
In the case of articles worn or damaged, particulars should be given in the column of remarks as to the nature of the damage, &c., with the opinion of the Station Torpedo Officer as to whether the articles are beyond all possibility of repair.

Paragraph 1014A. – The cases issued from the Brennan Torpedo Factory will be identified by numbers figured on the outside, and by the distinguishing mark notified in instructions issued to Officers in charge of torpedo installations.
All cases used for the return of gear from stations should be addressed “O.H.M.S., C.O.O., Chatham,” and not to the Superintendent, Brennan Torpedo Factory.
Brennan Torpedo Factory cases will be used when available.  These usually have a reversible label with the correct address and distinguished mark on the reverse.  Should this not be so, or in the event of other cases being used, an identification number and the distinguishing mark will be clearly painted or branded on the cases, which will be addressed as above.
Empty Brennan Torpedo Factory packing cases will be returned to the Brennan Torpedo Factory precisely as laid down for cases containing gear, receipt and issue vouchers being sent direct to Superintendent, Brennan Torpedo Factory.
At stations abroad, however, if the cases are of little value, they may be disposed of locally, under paragraph 343, Regulations for Army Ordnance Services.
Cases should be returned as early as possible after they are unpacked, more especially in the case of special cases, metal mast stay boxes, and rubber boxes (when issued), &c.
All cases, empty or otherwise, packed inside other cases, should be given identification numbers, when it is intended to voucher them as “cases,” the number of every case vouchered as such being entered on the vouchers.
The “in transit” vouchers, or notes, passed between the Superintendent, Brennan Torpedo Factory, or the Commanding Royal Engineer, and the transport departments, or carriers, will describe in general terms only the contents of each case.

110.   The distinguishing mark referred to in paragraph 1014A, engineer Services, is ( (

111.   On the arrival of torpedo gear at a station it will be unpacked in the presence of the Station Torpedo Officer, who will ascertain that all parts are present and correct, and, in the case of secret mechanism, that the seals are unbroken before taking it on charge.  The receipt vouchers will then be signed by the Station Torpedo Officer, countersigned by the Commanding Royal Engineer, and returned to the Superintendent, Brennan Torpedo Factory.


112.   The transport of stores connected with torpedo installations is dealt with in the Regulations for Supply, Transport and Barrack Services, 1899.

113.   The following extracts are reproduced for convenience of reference:-

Paragraph 165B. – Torpedo and gear connected with them being issued form, or returned to, the Brennan Torpedo Factory, Chatham, will, as a rule, be sent by water, but and transport may be used when necessary for the due preservation of secrecy, or in cases of emergency, or when more economical.

Paragraph 166 )b.). – In the case of Brennan torpedo stores in direct consignment, the Superintendent, Brennan Torpedo Factory, or the Commanding Royal Engineer will arrange, as may be necessary, for any portion or parts to be specially taken charge of by an Officer of the ship, and will detail a member of his staff to see that the cases are properly taken over and to obtain a receipt from the Officer of the ship or Transport Officer.  Separate bills of lading will be used for these stores.

114.   In the case of depth mechanisms becoming defective, they will, unless the number exceeds two, be returned to the Brennan Torpedo Factory in the personal charge of an Officer.  Others to replace them being taken from the factory to the station, in a similar way, advantage being taken, when possible, of Officers proceeding on leave or duty.
In case of the depth mechanisms exceeding two in number, special steel cases with two different locks are used, the two keys being sent separately by registered letter post.  The receipt for the first key being awaited before the second is sent off.
One of these keys is to be given to each of the two persons who have the custody of the keys of the torpedo installation safe, and are to remain in their custody until returned to the Brennan Torpedo Factory (see paragraph 4).
In opening and closing this case, and in taking out and putting in depth mechanism, the same rules are to be observed as regards the attendance of both the authorized persons who have custody of the keys, as are in force with regard to the depth mechanism safe (see paragraph 4).

115.   Steering mechanisms should be packed in strong cases, which should be sealed.

116.   The greatest case is to be taken in packing stores returned to the factory to obviate damage in transit.  Precautions should be taken to prevent rusting while in transit, and, from distant stations, torpedoes, charge chambers, &c., should be treated as described in paragraph 33, for torpedoes remaining long unattended to, except as regards the quicklime which may be omitted.
No gear should ever be packed in empty wire cases.

117.   The “in transit” vouchers, or notes, passed between the Superintendent, Brennan Torpedo Factory, or the Commanding Royal Engineer, and contents of each case, but, in the case of gear of a confidential nature, is to be entered on these vouchers.  No reference to the Brennan Torpedo Factory will appear on these “in transit” vouchers.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: John38 on May 20, 2014, 20:11:50
Security was very high.

 Wasn't Captain Scott (Antarctic) a Torpedo Officer?
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on May 20, 2014, 20:19:53
Everything was very very strict when it came to the torpedoes.  Security was very high but so were the rules and regulations of working with them!
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 06, 2014, 10:08:10

118.   Any damaged parts which cannot be satisfactorily be repaired locally, or which it is not considered advisable to send out for repair, should be returned to the Brennan Torpedo Factory for repair or replacing as the case may be, the requisitions to repair or replace being dealt with as detailed in Regulations for engineer Services, paragraph 961B.

119.   Depth or steering mechanisms requiring repair internally will invariably be returned to the Brennan Torpedo Factory.

Care and Maintenance.


120.   The only peculiarity of torpedo cells is their special shape.  They are of the Le Clanchè type.

It may be pointed out that the rough test of  reddening a wire is not altogether to be relied on.  It is found that a cell may redden momentarily but polarize so quickly as to be practically unserviceable.

Service cells. – Service cells are now issued without sal ammoniac, and with the filling and vent holes sealed, so as to obviate the possibility of any action due to damp.  The filling hole is closed by a cork, as usual, the vent hole by a wooden plug, each being coated with shellac varnish, thereby practically hermetically sealing the cell.  Attached to the cell is a loose vent plug.
When required for use the cork and plug will be removed and a warm saturated solution of sal ammoniac added.  The temperature of the saturated solution should be about 105 to 110 degrees Fah.  The same cork can be used for re-closing, the filling hole, but the wooden plug closing the vent will be replaced by the cane plug attached to the cell.
Twelve service cells should be used annually in practice, or, if for any reason this cannot be done, should be filled and tested.  The cells will then be converted to practice cells, and service cells to replace them will be demanded.
The cells used will be those which have been longest in store, and for this purpose the batches of cells will be labelled with the date of receipt at the station.

Practice cells. – Further, if the existing supply of practice cells at stations, together with the 12 taken annually from the service cells and the establishment of spare parts, is found insufficient for practice purposes, the necessary extra supply will be taken from the oldest service cells as above, and new service cells demanded.
Practice cells will thus never be demanded, and but few parts.
Practice cells will not, however, be unnecessarily expended, and serviceable and undamaged parts will be used to remake others.
When the cell is complete except the closing, fit the teak slabs issued for the purpose on the top of the cell, putting the ring for the cork, and cent tube, in place.  Then pour over the top pure molten pitch.  The pitch must be mineral pitch, not vegetable pitch which is too soft and runs with slight heat.  Finish the top of the pitch with a hot iron.

Storage. – Cells will be stored in precisely the condition in which they are received, except that if the shellac varnish on the cork and plug has been cracked at the joint in transit or unpacking, another coat should be put on to seal the joints.
The cells will be stored standing upright in as dry and cool a place as possible, and never in the torpedoes.

Charge Chambers.

121.   Charge chambers will be treated as described under Regulations for Army Ordnance Services.

(a.)   The following extracts for convenience of reference:-
Paragraph 705.  When received into store these charges will be carefully weighed and their weights compared with those marked on the charge chamber; the inspection will be repeated at the end of September in each year in temperate climates, and at the end of March and September in each year in tropical climates.

Paragraph 706.  Before weighing, the closing plug should be unscrewed to allow the escape of gas.
Paragraph 707.  If the loss of weight from escape of moisture reaches the limit allowed, cos., 2 per cent., sufficient carbolic solution  (prepared in accordance with paragraph 642) should be added to make up the deficiency.
Paragraph 708.  Should the weight have increased beyond the limit allowed, viz., 2 per cent., it shows that moisture has leaked into the case.  This may render the guncotton unfit for use, and the charge should be returned to Woolwich, but at stations abroad it will be left to the discretion of the Officer in charge either to unload, test and repair the chamber and reload it will fresh guncotton, or to return the charge chamber to Woolwich for examination.

(b.)   Attention is drawn to paragraph 639, Regulations for Army Ordnance Services, by which the closing plugs shall be removed once a quarter to allow the escape of gas, and then immediately replaced.

(c.)   Great care must be taken, when handling charge chambers, that the studs are not damaged.  Whenever the charge chamber is detached from the torpedo, or when the bow block is removed for any length of time, even when the charge chamber remains in place, the wooden blocks issued with it should be put on.  They will also always be put on when charge chambers are packed for return to Woolwich, or being weighed, the weights recorded being inclusive of the weight of the block.

(d.)   The charge chambers now being issued to stations on conversion to .07 wire (torpedoes 101  to 200) are known as Mark II. long, and are made up to a weight of 364 lb. by varying the amount of guncotton.  Approximately each charge consists of 230 lb. of wet guncotton.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 23, 2014, 18:38:37

122.   (a.)   Service primer tubes, containing dry guncotton, will be stored in compliance with Magazine Regulations.  It is usually most convenient to store them in the nearest submarine mining dry guncotton store.
Arrangements will be made for their satisfactory storage at the installation, on mobilization, during such time as any torpedoes may not be actually primed.

(b.)   Primer tubes are interchangeable, but a tube should be allotted to each torpedo, and, after it has been tried in position, should have the number of that torpedo painted on it before it is put away in the magazine.

(c.)   The instructions for the examination of primers are given in paragraph 611 to 620, Regulations for Army Ordnance services.

(d.)   The following extracts from Regulations for Army Ordnance Services are reproduced for convenience of reference:-

Paragraph 633.  The Brennan torpedo primer is enclosed in a brass cylinder with the lid secured with cement.  It may be opened by standing it head downwards on some cotton waste soaked in hot water, and then drawing off the head in a vice.  It is closed as in paragraph 621, using Pettman cement instead of beeswax.

Paragraph 634.  In addition to the test for free acid, 5 per cent. of the Brennan torpedo primers will be returned annually to Woolwich for proof, if transport is available; if not, the guncotton from the primers selected will be burnt out locally, to ascertain if dry.

(e.)   To carry out these regulations, the guncotton of one primer tube at each installation should be renewed annually; guncotton for renewals should be included in the annual estimates of stores.
Pettman cement should be demanded from the Army Ordnance Department in quantities of 4 oz. as required.

(f.)   The primer consists of about 20 oz. of dry guncotton in 1 ¼ inch by 1 ¼ inch discs of 1 oz. each.
The disc in the cap has a hole bored in it to take the detonator, and a dummy detonator is placed in each primer to keep this disc in position and to make the tube airtight.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 24, 2014, 19:53:16

123.   The detonator to be used with the Brennan torpedo is-

(a.)   Detonator, torpedo, small flange (Mark III.), 77 grains.  These are issued five in a tin cylinder.
(b.)   They may be stored at the installation in a dry, cool situation.  They must be kept under lock and key apart from other gear, and always away from other explosives.
(c.)   In accordance with paragraph 860, Regulations for Army Ordnance Services, 5 per cent. of all torpedo detonators in store over 2 years old should be returned to Woolwich for inspection every year, as they cannot be proved locally.

Telegraph Apparatus – Treatment and Testing.

124.   The electrical connections of the telegraph gear are dealt with in paragraphs 45 to 51, and the manipulation and daily tests in paragraph 76.


125.   Defects resulting in unsatisfactory working have been found to occur in the different parts of the apparatus in the following order of frequency:-

(1.)   Cables, connections, battery, %C.
(2.)   Flexible cable and its connections.
(3.)   Sending instruments.
(4.)   Dials.

It is absolutely essential that all cables, leads, connections, &C., should be kept in perfect order.  Many apparent failures, or peculiar actions of the dials, have been due to defects external to the instruments.
It is, of course, equally essential that the battery should be kept in thoroughly good order.
This is especially the case when testing, as, for simplicity, the number of cells is made the basis of the tests.
In these instructions the meaning of the following terms should be clearly understood:-
“Minimum” number of cells, by which is meant the lowest number of cells with which an apparatus works satisfactorily under given conditions.
“Maximum” number of cells, i.e., the highest number with which an apparatus works satisfactorily.
In some cases, with apparatus in first-rate order, this “maximum” may be very high, and it will often not be reached in testing.
“Margin of cells,” i.e., the greatest number of cells added to the “minimum” in accordance with the instruction for testing, with which an apparatus is found to work satisfactorily.
If the “maximum,” is low enough to come within the scope of the tests, the “margin” will be the difference between the “maximum” and the “minimum” number of cells.
Various circumstances may cause the minimum number to increase, or the maximum to decrease, thus reducing the margin within which the instrument works satisfactorily.  It is this margin which is chiefly important; variation in the absolute values found for “maximum” and “minimum” is not in itself usually material within considerable limits, provided that the “margin” remain sufficient.

126.   The pressing of all four buttons together has a great polarizing effect on the battery.  This practice is unnecessary.  The only object for which it might be employed, viz., to ensure the right pair of buttons being pressed at a critical moment, can be equally well and more conveniently attained by pressing each pair in rapid succession.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on June 25, 2014, 11:37:03
Tests and Working from Observing Position, and Number of Cells to be Used.

127.   It is assumed that the cells are in good condition, and of the standard of good Leclanche cells.
It is undesirable to use unnecessary battery power, as by doing so the working parts of the dials are much hammered.
The number of cells to use will vary-

(1.)   With the length of cable and lead.
(2.)   With the condition of the instruments.
(3.)   With the condition of cables, leads, &C., though of this there should never, normally, be any question.

This number will be ascertained as follows, the sending instrument being worked at a reasonably fast pace, the highest speed, in fact, used in practice.
Test for the “minimum” number of cells with which the dials work with certainty, each dial separately.
Of the two results obtained, take the highest as the “minimum” to work upon.
The highest result will probably, though not certainly, be with the “quick return” on the engine dial.  Efficient ringing of the bell on the engine dial is, of course, included in “working with certainty.”


14 cells are found necessary for engine dial.
13 cells are found necessary for steering dial.
Take 14 as the “minimum” to work upon.

The “minimum” having been ascertained as above, proceed as follows:-
Add eight cells to the “minimum,” and test again.
If the apparatus works perfectly satisfactorily with the eight added cells, test with eight more, added four at a time, i.e., with 12, and then 16 added to the “minimum.”
Subject, however, to the proviso that in no case should the total number of cells exceed the equivalent, taking into account the resistance of the cables, of about 28 cells direct on the dials.
If the apparatus works satisfactorily with the eight cells added to the “minimum,” i.e., if the “margin,” as defined, be shown to be not less than eight cells, the result of the test may be considered satisfactorily, and the extra cells added are merely for information as to the extent of the “margin.”
Then, for the number of cells to be used in practice:-

(1.)   If the “margin” is 12 of over-
Add six cells to the “minimum” ascertained as above.
(2.)   If the “margin” is under 12 cells-
Add half the “margin,” or in the case of an off number ”margin + ½ “

The “margin” of cells should not, ordinarily, be allowed to remain below eight.
If below this figure the cause should be investigated.
If traced to one of the instruments, the latter should be examined as described later, and if the fault cannot be remedied it should be reported, and a spare instrument, if available, taken into use.
If, however, there is no spare instrument available, or if the small “margin” be due to some cause not immediately remediable, the apparatus should not necessarily be considered unreliable.  Under these circumstances the exact “margin” should be ascertained, and, if half the “margin” be added to the “minimum” as before, the apparatus may be found perfectly reliable with a very small “margin.”
Dials have been known to work with a “margin” of only two cells, i.e., one call added to the “minimum” for the working number, but it would not be advisable, except in the case of emergency, to work with a less margin than four or five cells, and care should then be taken not to work too fast.
The above test for the number of cells to be used will be made-

(1.)   Once in 6 months.
(2.)   When necessary on other occasions, e.g., when the apparatus has any appearance of working unsatisfactorily, when instruments have been changed or overhauled, cables changed, &C.

The same number of cells (ascertained as above) will be used for both dials, as the worst case is taken as the “minimum.”
Cases might occur, however, where it would be advisable to allow or this difference in the event of having on an emergency to work with a very small “margin,” and if the number of cells required for each dial differed abnormally.

Testing Dials.

128.   The dials themselves will be tested-

(1.)   Annually.
(2.)   In the event of circumstances pointing to the dials being at fault.

These tests will be made in the engine-room, with leads direct from the battery, eliminating all cables, &C.
The sending instrument can be used if known to be in thoroughly good order, or a couple of keys can be inserted in the circuit.
Each dial will be tested separately (the bell being included with the engine dial).
The contacts will be made, as before, at the highest speed likely to be used in practice.
Each dial will be tested for the “minimum” number of cells, and the “margin,” precisely as described above.
The “minimum” number of cells required for the dial under test will in this case be carefully noted.
If the “margin” within which a dial works with certainty is less than eight, or if the “minimum” number of cells necessary is greater than-

With “quick-return” dial.
Engine dial and bell… 15 cells.
Steering dial… 13 cells.
the dial will be examined as explained later.
If this examination and treatment does not put the matter right, the dial will be returned for repair, and a spare one, if available, taken into use.
Though it is desirable that a dial not meeting the above tests should be however, follow at all that it is in unsafe working condition.
It can be retained in use, if required, so long as the conditions laid down with regard to tests for number of cells to use are complied with.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 01, 2014, 17:06:26
( (
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 01, 2014, 17:33:12
Examination and Cleaning of Dials.

129.   The dial will be examined-

(1.)   Annually.
(2.)   When it fails under test.

If the examination is for a failure, it should be seen that the pointer is firmly fixed and the failure not due to its slipping.
It should be seen that the dial case in on a flat bed.
This will normally be the case, but failure has been known to occur owing to the steering dial being raised on scotches, and screwed down in that position in such a way as to produce slight distortion and consequent binding of the mechanism.
The mechanism will then be examined.
The pointer and dial face being removed, the centre body of the mechanism can be lifted out, clear of the magnets, &C., after turning the three half-headed holding-down screws to the required angle.
The mechanism so removed will on no account be further taken to pieces, or the adjustments or springs interfered with in any way (except the bent wire spring, as described later).
The mechanism will be examined, and any dirt or dust which may have found its way in, and which is easily removeable with a brush or otherwise, should be removed.
When it appears necessary, on examination, and in any case at the annual examination, the mechanism will be very lightly and carefully oiled with a few drops of instrument oil; a fine-pointed piece of wool, which only holds a small drop of oil on the end, is the most convenient means.
On no account whatever will any oil, except clean, pure, instrument oil (not D.M. oil) be used for this purpose.
The adjustment of this mechanism requires very great experience.  It must, therefore, be very carefully handled, and, if there is any defect which necessitates taking to pieces or readjustment, it is advisable to return the dial for repair.
Care must be taken, when removing and replacing the mechanism, not to injure the fine wire leads in the dial case.
When refixing the pointer the special small spanner, issued for the purpose, will be used.
The pointer cannot be easily fixed sufficiently firmly with the fingers, but is very liable to damage if too great force is used.
The springs are easily removable without disturbing the mechanism, but must be carefully handled.  A few spare springs are being issued in case any are ever broken.
In all tests of dials it must be seen that the bell on the engine dial rings with a clear full stroke.

130.   The results of the periodical tests laid down, viz:-

Half-yearly test of number of cells required (giving approximate length of cable and lead);
Annual test of dials.

will be embodied in annual reports.
When testing the engine order dial for the “minimum” number of cells necessary, it may be found that the dial still works with certainty, with a number of cells insufficient to ring the bell satisfactory, i.e., that the bell fails before the dial, or the opposite may be found.
The missing of an occasional stroke by the bell when the dial is being tested rapidly backwards and forwards is immaterial, and will not be considered failure of the bell.  Failure of the bell is when it fails to ring, of to ring loud and clear on a single movement (or zero on the “quick return”) of the dial, or through a series of contacts when the dial is being worked at ordinarily fast pace.
The most desirable condition is that the dial and bell should fail practically simultaneously, or the dial slightly before the bell.
It should, however, be borne in mind that it is far more essential for the bell to ring normally with a full, loud stroke than for the above condition to be complied with.  Moreover, the instruments vary somewhat, and it does not follow that this condition can be attained.
The adjustment of the bell is made by turning the milled-headed screw under the box (after removing the gong).  Turning to the right shortens the stroke, and therefore, diminishes the number of cells required, and vice versa.
With reference to the above dial tests, it must be remembered that the less the dials are interfered with, except for annual examination or on failure, the better.
It is advisable that such examination should never be made except by an Officer.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 03, 2014, 17:00:22
Sending Instrument, Quick Return, Binocular.

131.   (a.)   The instrument consists, generally, of one main casting, carrying all the telegraph mechanism and connections, and a pair of binocular glasses attached to, but practically independent of, the main casting.
To separate the glasses from the casting it is only necessary to push the dark glasses well aside, and to remove the hexagon nuts on the front of the instrument with the clamping key provided; the two portions then come apart.
The instrument should, however, be dismantled as little as possible.  The glasses should be considered solely as part of the instrument, and their removal for use apart should be strictly forbidden.

(b.)   Main casting. – The main casting consists of a stem with a box on the top, which box has a cover easily removable after slackening the two brass screws at the sides.
Under the stem are the spring contacts, which make the connections with the cable leads.
These contacts are protected by a cap, which can be unscrewed after the removing the small screw at the back.  On the removal of the cap the ebonite block, which carries the contacts, is exposed.
The block is secured normally by the cap, but, on the removal of this, by the leads only; the block should, therefore, not be further interfered with, unless the leads are being renewed, as damage to the latter is likely to result.  A pin determines the correct position of the block, and so of the contacts.
The fine leads from the contacts run up through two holes in the stem to the box above.  In the box is an ebonite base, through two corresponding holes in which the leads pass to their respective terminals.
The ebonite base, which was attached by two screws to the bottom of the box, carries all the terminals (except those of the telephone receiver), and the mechanism of the pushes, the electrical connections here being by permanent metal strips.
The mechanism is simple and requires no explanation.  The contacts are made by phosphor-bronze springs bearing platinized strips, against platinized stops, and the movement of the pushes and springs is such as to ensure ample time and a slightly rubbing movement for each contact, if the pushes, as they always should be, are pressed home.
The telephone receiver is attached to the front of the casting, the attachments passing through the front of the box and forming the terminals inside.  These and the receiver should, therefore, not be unnecessarily removed, as to do so it is necessary to dismantle the receiver.
It will be seen from the foregoing that there are no moving leads, as in previous instruments of this type.
As regards watertightness, the cover of the box is overhung, leathers cover the pushes (spare ones will be found in the box), and a parafinned washer between the receiver and the front of the casting prevents the percolation of water here.  The instrument is thus considerably protected, but, nevertheless, should not, or course, be unnecessarily exposed to wet, and after any unavoidable severe exposure of the kind, the cover should be removed and the interior of the box examined.
Should the ebonite base ever be removed, the protection of the hidden portions of the leads should be ensured by stopping the holes with paraffin wax, and making a joint between the ebonite base and the bottom of the box, round the holes, with indiarubber solution, a thin cork washer, or in some similar manner.
Should the ebonite base ever be removed, the protection of the hidden portions of the leads should be ensured by stopped the holes with paraffin wax, and making a joint between the ebonite base and the bottom of the box, round the holes, with indiarubber solution, a thin cork washer, or in some similar manner.
Three projections on the front of the casting form feet for conveniently standing the instrument while keeping all material parts clear of the ground.

(c.)   Glasses. – The glasses are Zeiss marine pattern night binoculars.  This pattern was selected after considerable trial as combing in a high degree the chief requisites for torpedo work, viz.: - good light, definition, stereoscopic effect, and field, with sufficient magnifying power.

(d.)   Adjustment of Glasses. – The moveable eye pieces allow of adjustment for focus for each eye separately, and a scale on the eye piece enables this adjustment to be noted for any individual.
With this type of glass the correct adjustment for pupillary distance (the distance between eyes) is very important.  It will be noticed that the increase of light and definition when this adjustment is correct is most marked.
The attachment has, therefore, been so designed as to allow easy adjustment ad full latitude and full latitude in this respect.  The hexagon nuts which form the attachment have been alluded to earlier.  When these are slightly slackened with the clamping key, the glasses are free to move, and the adjustment can be made.  The correct setting for any individual can be noted on the celluloid scale.
When the glasses are being used by several persons the nuts can be just so adjusted as to give a convenient stiffness of motion.  Normally, however, the glasses should be as far as possible kept clamped to the setting of the usual observer, as the metal used (for the sake of lightness) is not a very good wearing metal.  The instrument will fit into the box with the glasses at any setting.
The sliding surfaces should be kept very lightly vaselined.
Dark Glasses are provided for use when running in the sun.  These normally lie over the above-mentioned nuts, and only need to be pushed into position over the object-glasses when required.  Spare discs are provided in case of breakage.  These will probably fit the rings sufficiently well, but they can be cemented in if necessary.

(e.)   Dismantling the glasses. – The glasses are delicate, and should only be interfered with if absolutely necessary.
The back and front cover plates should never be removed, as these fix the prisms, the absolutely correct adjustment of which is essential and very delicate.
The same applies even more to the bracket attachments to each half which carry the centre pin, as on their precise adjustment depends the parallelism of the glasses.
Should it become necessary to clean the glasses, extreme care should be exercised.  It is difficult not to actually introduce dust in the operation, and opening up the glasses at all allows, of course, the entrance of any particles in the air.
The object glasses can be unscrewed after removing the extremely fine screw which will be found in the rim of the front cover plate.  Certain faces of the prisms are then exposed, and a speck of dust may be removed with a camel hair brush.  If any further cleaning is required washleather, or silk on the end of a piece of wood, is perhaps best; but whatever the brush or material used, it must be absolutely dry, clean and free from dust, hairs, or fluff, or much trouble will be experienced.
To remove the eye-pieces the adjustable covers must first be taken off.  These can be unscrewed after removing the small screw which will be found thereon.  The whole eye-piece can then be unscrewed from the back cover plate.
Other faces of the prisms can then be got at as above.
The eye pieces should not be further dismantled; they are believed to be absolutely dust and damp proof, so that the lenses are not likely ever to require cleaning on the inside.

(f.)   Cables and Connections. – The system of flexible cables and connections is as follows:-

There are two lengths of cable, a short length (approximately 7 feet) and a long length (about 50 yards).
Each short length has one ordinary spigot, and one special spigot for connection to the instrument; each long length has one ordinary spigot and one socket.
The short length, then, though a necessary adjunct of the instrument, is separate from it, and can be changed when necessary, while any number of intermediate long lengths can be connected together on the hose pipe principle.
Thus the instrument with the short length attached, can be connected direct on to a junction-box, or on to the end of one or more long lengths, as desired.

(g.)   Use of Instrument. – The instrument should be kept as far as possible in the box when being carried about, but the strap will be found convenient when it is actually in use.
Various points in connection with the use of the sending instrument are noted under the heading “Practice.”
The note on the cover of the box is merely a reminder, and requires some amplification for those not thoroughly acquainted with the instrument.
In this respect the effect of manipulation of the sending instrument depends, of course, on the mechanism of the dials.
Assuming the dial pointer to be at zero, no contacts having been made either way, the maximum number of movements of the pointer in one direction, R or L, is 11.  It is immaterial whether these 11 movements in the opposite direction, so long as 11 in all have been made in one direction.
For instance, suppose contacts are made in the following sequence: 5 R, 5 L, 4 R, 2 R.  The pointer will then finally be at 4 R, but since in all 11 Right contacts have been made, further pressing of the Right button will have no effect.
For any further effect to be obtained by pressing the Right button it is necessary first to “wipe out,” so to speak, all that has gone before, by the “quick return”; i.e., to bring the dial pointer to zero by pressing both buttons simultaneously.
It follows that though the practice of “taking off” a certain number of steps in one direction by making contacts in the opposite direction is often useful – especially where small effects are concerned – it should be done with discrimination, or is liable to lead to error.
In the case of considerable movements, or where there is liability to forget precisely what has gone before (as when an order has been on for some time, or several small movements have been made and “taken off”), it is always safer to “zero” first.  The term “zero” is always used in the sense of bringing the dial pointer central by the “quick return”.
In the case of engine dials, especially, “zero” should, as a general rule, be given before an order when the previous order has been on some time, so this not only prevents error, but helps, by the additional strokes on the bell, to call the attention of the engine room.
The time lost by “zeroing” in this way is practically imperceptible, as neither the engine driver not the man at the steering wheel can follow the orders sufficiently quickly for it to be material.
Though the above statement as regards the maximum of 11 contacts is true enough for practical purposes, it is not strictly so, and it is as well to point out where this is the case.
If 11 contacts in all have been made in one direction, the first contact then made in the opposite direction brings the pointer back two steps, one of which can then be put on again by making contact in the original direction.
For instance, suppose 11 R has been given; 1 L will then bring the pointer back two steps, i.e., to the ninth division, and one of these can be put on again by making one or more Right contacts, thus bringing the pointer to the 10th division.  The pointer can thus be brought back from extreme Right to within one of zero by making L and R contacts alternately.
This can be seen by trial with the instrument connected direct on to the dials.  It is not a condition which is of the slightest importance in actual use, but it is as well it should be known, as it has led to the impression that the dial is defective.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 05, 2014, 16:54:38
Faults in Flexible Cables.

132.   Should a fault be detected in a flexible cable it will be necessary to remove and remake one of the special junctions.

133.   There are three sorts of these-
(1.)   The small spigot to fix to the sending instrument.
(2.)   The large spigot.
(3.)   The socket.

134.   Great care must be taken in remaking any of these joints to connect the cores to their correct contact pieces.
The cores should be connected to the contacts on the large spigot, as shown on Figure 1, Plate III.  From this the correct connection to the sockets and to the small spigot can be followed, it being remembered that the latter has to fit into the socket on the sending instrument, the contacts of which are numbered.

135.   If the connections at the small spigot, Figure 2, Plate III, are defective, it can be dismantled by slightly warming the spigot to lessen the chance of the “pudding” sticking to the ebonite, then gripping the end of the spigot and unscrewing the ebonite shoulder, the end of the spigot then comes off exposing the ends of the cable soldered to the contacts on the ivory block.  This operation has to be carried out with the greatest care as the ivory block easily breaks.  It will be seen from figure 2, Plate III., that each core is led up through its hole in the ivory block, bent over into its groove and soldered in.  These can be removed by unsoldering with the bolt, and then if the pudding is removed the ivory block can be freed.
In the remaking, the pudding should be formed of paraffined string, and before screwing together it should be smeared with Vaseline.  In soldering no acid should be used.
The above is a troublesome operation, and unless very urgently required it would be better to demand another short length complete from the torpedo factory.

136.   The details of the large spigot are simpler (Figure 3, Plate III.).
To dismantle, remove the screws holding the ebonite block, warm the spigot so that the hand can barely hold it, then push the pudding and ebonite block out.  The connections for the cable are obvious.  The pudding should be remade with string and bicycle cement.

137.   The dismantling of the socket should be carried out in a similar way to that of the spigot, but before doing this it is well to remove the ebonite cap holding in the spring contacts to discover whether the fault is in these.

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Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 07, 2014, 18:41:45

138.   Storage and Treatment. – New rubbers will be stored in covered tanks of clean, fresh water, which should be changed occasionally.  Rubbers in use will be similarly kept in a separate receptacle.  Rubbers must be kept absolutely free from oil or grease, which injuriously affects the material.  Moreover, greasiness of the rubber is dangerous, and has caused them to spring out.
When the rubbers are taken from the fresh water receptacle, prior to use, they will, therefore, be washed in a solution of soda, and only inserted when quite dry and clean.
Rubber deteriorates rather quickly, especially in some climates.  Any rubber which show signs, on examination, of cracking, loss of the usual properties of good rubber, or perishing in any way, must be discarded.


139.   The following are the lubricants in use and their purposes.
Olive Oil. – For rubbing down the shells or torpedoes after running.  It is not very suitable as a lubricant for any of the torpedo gear, as it generally contains impurities which render it rather liable to dry and gum up.  It also often contains rather a large percentage of free acid.
Oil, Special for D.M.’s. – For depth mechanism, steering mechanism (torpedo), and steering box (Engine Room).  This oil was introduced on account of its comparative freedom from the above-mentioned defects of olive oil.
Vaseline. – (1.)   For protective purposes.
It should be freely used wherever protection from rust in required, when there is no objection to a greasy surface.  This applies to nearly all the steel parts of the internal mechanism of the torpedo, to spare parts, and probably many installation articles.
(2.)   As a lubricant.
It is an extremely good lubricant, and should be used for all ball and roller bearings, and all the parts that are regularly lubricated by smearing, as well as for bearings, which do not get regular and frequent lubrication, e.g., shaft bearings, thrust rings, ring ejecting gear, chain pulley bearings, rudder bearings, rudder axles, &C.  It should be warmed for use in the syringes.
Caster Oil. – For dressing, preserving, and lubricating diaphragm leathers, all cup leathers, leather washers, &C.
It is a very food dressing, and also an excellent lubricant.
Paraffin is excellent for cleansing bearings, removing rust , &C.

Wire, Storage, and Treatment.

All wires are examined and tested at the Brennan Torpedo Factory and are issued ready for use, packed in quicklime, and protected by wrappings of paper.  Each hank is issued with a metal label attached to it, stamped with the number of the hank, the nominal diameter and net weight of the hank.  Further particulars are given on the invoice of the wire.
New hanks will be kept in quicklime until required for coiling.
Wire must be very carefully handled; the hanks should be lifted with care, and never dragged.  The binding wire must not be too tightly screwed up.
All wires must be most carefully protected from damp.

141.   Service Wires. – The wires which five the best results under test are selected for issue as service wires.  Special precautions must be taken with these wires, and they will be dealt with as soon as possible after receipt at an installation.
Service wires should be coiled in a dry atmosphere.
The wire will be passed through cotton waste held near the drum, and just sufficiently oiled to be greasy and no more.
Care will be taken that the wire does not come into contact with the hand, or anything damp, and, especially in cold weather, breathing on the wires should be avoided.
Twine will not be used for fastening.  Soft-tinned wire, about .03-inch diameter, is the best material to use.  It is rather difficult to ensure locally tinned wire being free from acid, but as sold it appears to be so.  The binding wire should be dry and oiled.
As soon as possible after coiling, the wires will be placed in the steel boxes provided for the purpose, in each of which a box or bag containing 2 or 3 lb. of fresh, dry quicklime will be placed om such a manner as to prevent, as far as possible, the lime being spilt.
The boxes will then be closed as under:-

142.   Closing Air-tight Steel Boxes for Service Wires. – The cover joint will be made with tarred 3-thread hemp spun yarn.
The spun yarn for each box should be in one continuous length, for convenience in readily breaking the joint, and will be thoroughly soaked in a melting (not boiling) mixture of 5 parts white lead and 1 part Russian tallow (used to prevent the packing setting hard).  It should be well pressed in, and lightly caulked, layer by layer, until the space between the cover and the box is full.
Every means available must be taken to ensure that the boxes are thoroughly dry, and that the operation of closing is carried out in a dry atmosphere in order to avoid, as far as possible, the slightest condensation of moisture inside them.

143.   Use of Service Wires. – Three pairs of service wires should be converted to practice and expended every year, so that the wires may be gradually replaced.
The oldest wires will be taken for use.
It is advisable to first use these wires on any special occasions which may arise in the curse of the year, when it is particularly desirable to minimise chances of failure.
In order that the installation may not be without its compliment of service wires, demands to replace those it is intended to expend will be sent in annually.  On receipt of the new wires they will as soon as possible be stored in the air-tight boxes, those removed being retained for use as above.

Mast stays.

144.   Mast stays are issued packed in lime in metal cylinders, 6 pairs in each cylinder.  The cylinders should only be opened as required.
With fair use and handling these stays would last for a considerable time, but it is advisable to discard them after they have been used for 10 or 12 runs.
They should be carefully examined before use, and any which have become damaged, rusted, or show signs of drawing or deterioration at the soldered loops should be discarded.
Two or three pairs only should be in use at one time for practice.  If stays are fitted to service masts they should be carefully looked after and oiled.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 08, 2014, 17:59:54
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 09, 2014, 13:54:26
V. – Records.


145.   Stress diagrams should always be taken.  The value of these diagrams can hardly be overestimated.  They assist in elucidating almost every abnormal occurrence which arises in practice, and in many cases it is only through the diagrams that the causes can be traced.  Even when some occurrence has taken place, of which there is no indication on the diagram, the absence of such indications often eliminates the possibility of causes which otherwise might have appeared likely.
It is not possible to enter into the interpretation of the diagrams.  This can only be learnt by experience and practice; Torpedo Officers should, therefore, always carefully examine them, tracing the sequence of events of the run on the diagram, even when there is no special point to elucidate.  By this means only can they become acquainted with all the indications, and get full value from the diagrams.
By this means also irregularities are sometimes found which are not otherwise noticeable, but which might become serious.
Diagrams should always be examined immediately after the run, while events are fresh in the memory, even though the more thorough investigation may have to be postponed.
In examination diagrams one should be superimposed on the other against the light, and the two compared.
Diagrams must be kept as clean and distinct as possible.  The stress, steering and clock pencils should be attended to and well pointed; they should not be too hard, and should be set with sufficient pressure to mark slightly heavily, as otherwise it is difficult to see through the superimposed paper.
In talking data from the diagram, no pencil mark should be made touching the actual stress curve, as it is found that this often renders it difficult to determine the precise original line on subsequent examination.  This does not refer to a sharp horizontal line at 900 or 1,000 lb. stress, which can be used if desired.
The rubber solution should be removed before the diagrams are put away.
Diagrams must never be inked in or pencilled over unless absolutely essential owing to bad marking.  It should not be necessary.
Diagrams will be headed with the name of the installation, and the following information will be given:-
Consecutive number of run, date, number of torpedo, whether right or left wire, and the readings of deducted drum turns and seconds used in the speed calculation for the run.

146.   Causes of Variation and Unreliability. – The circumference of the two recorder barrels may be found at some installations to vary slightly.  The effect of this is of course to make one diagram slightly longer than the other.  This is not sufficient to be material, but should be known exactly, so as to be borne in mind when examining the diagrams.
The chief points of importance to be looked to, which may cause variation and make the diagrams unreliable, are –
Variation in length between the diagrams (other than the possible permanent variation mentioned above).  This is usually due to the barrel not being securely clamped, but may be an indication that the screw fixing the dynamometer pulley to its spindle is loose or sheared.
Sticking of Dynamometer.  This is fully considered under ”Dynamometer,” Part II.  It renders the diagram quite unreliable for careful comparison.  It may be seen at once on the diagram by the absence, in places, of the usual slight vibration and undulations, and in worse cases, by the cutting off of rises or falls of stress, until finally, straight lines of considerable length are drawn.
It must also be seen that the paper is tight on the barrel, that the pencils cannot “wobble,” that the datum line is accurately drawn, and that the clock pencil is truly lined with the stress pencil.  The clock will be occasionally checked and regulated, and the connections looked to.

147.   Scales required. – Three scales are required for use with the diagram.
(1.)   A scale of stress.
(2.)   A scale of drum turns would in.
(3.)   A scale of steering.

(1.)   The scale of stress must be made at the station, and instructions for doing this are given below(see Dynamometer Scales).
(2.)   A scale of drum turns is supplied from the Brennan Torpedo Factory.  As the recorder barrel is revolved by the wire passing over the dynamometer pulley, and as all gear is made as accurately accurate for all ordinary purposes.  For extremely accurate experiments a special scale must be made by passing a known length of wire over the dynamometer pulley.  A;; data for making this scale, size of pulleys, gearing, length of wire in each later, &C., will be found in Part II.
(3.)   The scale of steering should be made locally by turning the steering wheel to various points in succession and marking the movement of the steering pencil on the barrel.
Copies of stress and steering scales should be forwarded with annual reports.

Dynamometer Scales.

148.   The following method of constructing dynamometer scales should be employed at all torpedo installations, except at the old installation at Sheerness.
In considering the best method for general use, facility of construction, together with accuracy, have been combined as far as possible.
It is found that the dynamometer spring occasionally vary slightly from one another.  A separate scale is, therefore, necessary for each wire.
The following method for constructing the scale, which is for one set of springs, should therefore be carried out separately for each set.
It may be well to point out that the law as to the extension of helical springs, i.e., that the extension of a helical spring is directly proportional to the force extending it, may be taken as always true within the limits of the spring.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 09, 2014, 16:34:15
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Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: John38 on July 10, 2014, 16:24:30
This is a really interesting document, and reminds one how difficult it is to detail the exact instructions to be followed (reminds me of designing Artificial Intelligence).

Is there much more to do on the torpedo, kyn? It's been a massive undertaking - well worth it though.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 10, 2014, 16:55:19
3 1/2 pages left!  I will be glad to finish it, as interesting as it is it does get a little tedious after a while :)

I do have one on the Fish torpedo too but think I will post a few pages rather than transcribing it all as it isn't much different to what is already in this thread.
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on July 10, 2014, 19:47:43

154.   A great number of factors affect the speed of a torpedo, and it is impossible, except with elaborate apparatus and under perfect conditions, to measure the speed with absolute accuracy.
The usual formulae, based on the number of revolutions of the propeller and an approximate mean slip, are, however, quite sufficiently accurate to be of great value.  It fails in absolute accuracy because the slip varies under different conditions, but this variation is very small compared with the actual variation of speed of the torpedo.
The very different speed results obtained from the formulae have led to the idea that the latter are so inaccurate as to be useless.  This is by no means the case, and if care is taken to compare the conditions of the various runs, and to obtain the necessary data for the formulae accurately, it will be found that the results are generally perfectly normal, and that the differences are actual differences of speed, due to the conditions of the runs.
All the conditions of a run which may affect the speed of a torpedo through the water should therefore be borne in mine when considering the speed obtained from formulae.
The causes of variation of speed are very numerous, and such points as bad depth, too high or low a stress, time of giving full speed, irregularities in propellers, heated bearings, &C., are obvious and need to reference.  Though such causes have to be taken into account in considering the speed results, it is from ordinary runs, where these should all be normal, that the most valuable information is obtained.
Some of the chief causes which affect the speed in such runs are:-

155.   Length if Run. – Directly owing to the amount of wire in the water.
Amount of Wire kept out of the Water. – Hence the height of universal pulleys, bollards, and so tide level.
Running in Curves. – Apart from possible variation of depth and slight extra rudder resistance, the speed may be considerably affected in both directions by curves.
If there is a considerable bight of wire in the water there will be less stress on the wire at the torpedo (even if the stress is kept up at the engine),as part of the power is expended in straightening up the bight through the water.  The speed, therefore, is diminished till the bight is taken up.
When once the bight is pulled straight, however, the torpedo is actually nearer the installation than would be the case wen the same amount of wire has been pulled out in a straight run; there is, therefore, less wire in the water, and the torpedo is consequently going faster.
In a run with such a curve near the commencement, therefore, and which is afterwards fairly straight, a higher mean of speed may actually result, as for the greater part of the run there is less wire in the water than would be the case in a straight run.  On the other hand, if considerable steering is continued during the run, a low speed may be expected.
Again, if the curve is very close in, the wire may follow up close, leaving little or no bight, there is little wire in the water, and a high speed may result even while on the curve.
Bights in the wire caused by tide may affect the speed in a similar manner.
The conditions which directly affect the speed, no doubt may also affect the slip of the propeller, and, therefore, the accuracy of the formulae; but this effect is very slight compared with the direct effect on the speed of the torpedo, and for the purposes of approximate comparison required it may be neglected, and the result of the formulae taken as sufficiently accurate.
It may be necessary at any time to run a torpedo at a vessel or target of an entirely different speed from that used in practice, and this target may approach so as to offer shots of various ranges and in various directions, which may also necessitate straight running or considerable steering at the start, &C.
To judge the time of launch and direction to take in such cases, it is of the greatest assistance to have some idea of the mean torpedo speed that may be expected in the particular case of shot.
This the calculated speed gives with quite sufficient accuracy if the results of normal runs of similar length and class are compared and the varying conditions noted.

156.   When a number of results of similar runs under normal conditions have been obtained and compared, it would be advantageous to tabulate the average mean speeds for a few typical classes of shot at ranges of, say, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 yards.
When using this information in practice, outside influences, such as tide on torpedo and target, must of course be taken into account.
Besides the above use, abnormal differences in speed may show something wrong with gear, errors in measurement, drum turns, &C.

157.   Whilst the torpedo is getting up her speed, say during the first 100 yards, the efficiency of the propeller is not as great as later on in the run.
Experiments at a station where the torpedo takes her depth at once have shown that for the first 100 yards 170 revolutions of the propeller are necessary, but for the remainder of the run 140 revolutions per 100 yards are required.
In calculating the range, therefore, it is desirable to deduct 30 from the total drum turns in addition to those lost before the torpedo reaches the water.

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That is all of it from this folder :)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on August 06, 2014, 15:40:47
I am currently arranging the re-homing of these rails, once in place at Cliffe Fort :)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: merc on August 07, 2014, 09:10:33
Brilliant Kyn :)

Are there any plans to have them on display, or is all that yet to be decided/sorted out?
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on August 07, 2014, 20:39:25
There are currently two forts interested at the moment, both of which would have them on display in time.  Once I know the arrangements I will let you know :)
Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: kyn on January 01, 2015, 17:02:57
Submarine Mining School Gillingham Pier

9 Aug 1883


I have the honor to state that, in accordance with your verbal instructions of the 7th inst I visited Sheerness yesterday morning, and in company with Lt. Colonel Le Mesurier and Lieut. Friend inspected Garrison Point and the adjacent beach with a view of ascertaining if that locality would be suitable for the trials of my torpedo in the event of its been determined to operate it from shore.

This locality offers several sites from which the operations could be conducted, but after carefully examining these and consulting with the above named officers I am of opinion that the north end of the Gun Wharf is the most suitable for the following reasons. –

1.   It is screened by the Fort from the fire f an enemy until he is well within the range of the torpedo.

2.   It commands the whole width of the channel for a considerable distance in both directions.

3.   It is most probable that this site would be used for a permanent station.

4.   Two methods of launching could be demonstrated, showing how the launching could be effected in the one case from a wall firing vertically from the water and in the other from a shelving beach.

5.   The situation is secluded from the observation of the public.

6.   The existing arrangements of the Fort would not be interfered with.

7.   It is the opinion of Lt. Colonel Le Mesurier and Lieut. Friend that trials from this site would severely test the powers of the torpedo, as very very strong currents and eddies exist in the locality making it a difficult matter to manage ordinary boats and steam launches.

With reference to the alternative method of operating from shore by means of a locomotive engine running on rails parallel to the beach, so as to command several points.  To carry this act fully would necessitate works of much greater magnitude and cost than these required for a fixed station such as that proposed.  Whereas from the fixed stations a method of launching could be demonstrated similar to that which would be adopted in the case of the locomotive being used.

I have the honor to be
Your most obedient servant
Louis Brennan

Signed by: Colonel E. C. Gordon R.E. Commandant S.M.E.

Title: Re: Brennan Torpedo
Post by: Norma O Connor on July 01, 2018, 00:00:25
Hi Kyn, 

I am so delighted to eventually be able to contact you through this wonderful educational forum!  My name is Norma O'Connor and I have spent a year working in Camden Fort Meagher, Crosshaven Co. Cork trying to compile and gather historical documents and update records for the fortification.   In essence to tell the story of Camden Fort Meagher formerly Fort Camden and Fort Meagher.  Along with working in the Fort I have gone back to college - UCC to do my MA in Digital Arts and Humanities.  My thesis is on Camden Fort Meagher.

I have created an online archive for Camden Fort Meagher and carried out 3D Scans & VR Walkthroughs  of specific areas within the Fort. and  They are working models and works in progress!  Enjoy :  )  As you know There is NO ON-SITE ACCESS AVAILABLE, OUT OF BOUNDS.   

I came across the Kent History Forum website: while researching information on Camden Fort Meagher.  I particularly like the history and photographic sections relating to Louis Brennan, Brennan Torpedo, Brennan Torpedo Factory Gillingham Kent, Royal Engineers Submarine Mining Depot - Chatham etc. 

Would it be possible please to link to and quote from your website as you have an important historical document and photographic record of Louis Brennan & the Brennan Torpedo including serving personnel? 

I would particularly like to include info links within the 3D Scan of the Brennan Torpedo:  I will credit you and / or your members accordingly.  This will help facilitate further research, learning and insights into our shared cultural and military history. 

Likewise you and your members are welcome to link to and Follow the Camden Fort Meagher Archives, 3D scans, VR Experiences and Photographic Narrative and contribute photos, videos and stories etc.   Also if you can put names, dates location etc. to any of the photos that would be great too. 
Please submit via Comments below photos. 

Looking forward to hearing from you :  )   

Kind Regards,

Norma O'Connor